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Concept 9 - involved in the day-to-day operations of the...

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Concept 5.5 Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by a unit of inheritance known as  gene. A gene consists of DNA, a polymer known as a  nucleic acid. There are two types of nucleic acids: RNA and DNA. There are two types of nucleic acids: ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid  (DNA). These are the molecules that allow living organisms to reproduce their complex components  from generation to generation. DNA provides directions for its own replication. DNA also directs RNA synthesis and, through RNA, controls protein synthesis. Organisms inherit DNA from their parents. Each DNA molecule is very long, consisting of hundreds to thousands of genes. Before a cell reproduces itself by dividing, its DNA is copied. The copies are then passed to  the next generation of cells. While DNA encodes the information that programs all the cell’s activities, it is not directly 
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Unformatted text preview: involved in the day-to-day operations of the cell. Proteins are responsible for implementing the instructions contained in DNA. Each gene along a DNA molecule directs the synthesis of a specific type of messenger RNA molecule (mRNA). The mRNA molecule interacts with the cell’s protein-synthesizing machinery to direct the ordering of amino acids in a polypeptide. The flow of genetic information is from DNA -> RNA -> protein. Protein synthesis occurs on cellular structures called ribosomes. In eukaryotes, DNA is located in the nucleus, but most ribosomes are in the cytoplasm. mRNA functions as an intermediary, moving information and directions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Prokaryotes lack nuclei but still use RNA as an intermediary to carry a message from DNA to the ribosomes....
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