Concept 11 - Concept 11.4 Response: Cell signaling leads to...

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Concept 11.4 Response: Cell signaling leads to regulation of cytoplasmic activities or transcription Ultimately, a signal-transduction pathway leads to the regulation of one or more  cellular activities. This may be the opening or closing of an ion channel or a change in cell metabolism. For example, epinephrine helps regulate cellular energy metabolism by activating  enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of glycogen. The stimulation of glycogen breakdown by epinephrine involves a G-protein-linked  receptor, a G protein, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and several protein kinases before  glycogen phosphorylase is activated. Other signaling pathways do not regulate the activity of enzymes but the synthesis  of enzymes or other proteins. Activated receptors may act as transcription factors that turn specific genes on or  off in the nucleus. Elaborate pathways amplify and specify the cell’s response to signals. Signaling pathways with multiple steps have two benefits. 1.
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Concept 11 - Concept 11.4 Response: Cell signaling leads to...

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