Concept 34 - within the cell Signal transduction pathways...

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Concept 11.3 Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors  to target molecules in the cell. The transduction stage of signaling is usually a multistep pathway that often greatly amplifies  the signal. o If some molecules in a pathway transmit a signal to multiple molecules of the next component  in the series, the result can be large numbers of activated molecules at the end of the pathway. o A small number of signal molecules can produce a large cellular response. Multistep pathways also provide more opportunities for coordination and regulation than do  simpler systems. Pathways relay signals from receptors to cellular responses. The binding of a specific signaling molecule to a receptor in the plasma membrane triggers the  first step in the chain of molecular interactions—the signal transduction pathway—that leads to a particular response 
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Unformatted text preview: within the cell. Signal transduction pathways act like falling dominoes. The signal-activated receptor activates another protein, which activates another, and so on, until the protein that produces the final cellular response is activated. The relay molecules that relay a signal from receptor to response are mostly proteins. o The interaction of proteins is a major theme of cell signaling. o In fact, protein interaction is a unifying theme of all cellular regulation. The original signal molecule is not passed along the pathway and may not even enter the cell. When the signal is relayed along a pathway, information is passed on. At each step, the signal is transduced into a different form, often by a conformational change in a protein. The conformational change is often brought about by phosphorylation....
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