Concept 38 -...

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Concept 11.4 Response: Cell signaling leads to regulation of cytoplasmic activities or  transcription. Ultimately, a signal transduction pathway leads to the regulation of one or more cellular  activities. The response may involve action in the nucleus or may occur in the cytoplasm. Many signaling pathways ultimately regulate protein synthesis, usually by turning specific  genes on or off in the nucleus. o Like an activated steroid receptor, the final activated molecule in a signaling pathway may  function as a transcription factor. o Often a transcription factor regulates several different genes. Signaling pathways may regulate the  activity  of proteins rather than their  synthesis,  directly  affecting proteins that function outside of the nucleus. o A signal may cause the opening or closing of an ion channel or a change in cell metabolism. o For example, epinephrine helps regulate cellular energy metabolism by activating enzymes  that catalyze the breakdown of glycogen. Signaling events may also affect cellular attributes such as overall cell shape. o
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course BSC BSC1005 taught by Professor Orlando,rebecca during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Concept 38 -...

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