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Concept 40 - Concept18. impo

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Concept 18.5 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect cell cycle control. Cancer is a set of diseases in which cells escape the control mechanisms that normally regulate  cell growth and division. The gene regulation systems that go wrong during cancer are the very same systems that play  important roles in embryonic development, the immune response, and other biological processes. The genes that normally regulate cell growth and division during the cell cycle include genes  for growth factors, their receptors, and the intracellular molecules of signaling pathways. Mutations altering any of these genes in somatic cells can lead to cancer. The agent of such changes can be random spontaneous mutations or environmental influences  such as chemical carcinogens, X-rays, or certain viruses.
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