Concept 9.6 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways Glycolysis can accept a wide range of carbohydrates for catabolism. Polysaccharides like starch or glycogen can be hydrolyzed to glucose monomers that enter glycolysis. Other hexose sugars, such as galactose and fructose, can also be modified to undergo glycolysis. The other two major fuels, proteins and fats, can also enter the respiratory pathways used by carbohydrates. Proteins must first be digested to individual amino acids. Amino acids that will be catabolized must have their amino groups removed via deamination. The nitrogenous waste is excreted as ammonia, urea, or another waste product. The carbon skeletons are modified by enzymes and enter as intermediaries into glycolysis or the citric acid cycle, depending on their structure. Catabolism can also harvest energy stored in fats.
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