During lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate (the ionized form of lactic acid) without release of CO 2 . Lactic acid fermentation by some fungi and bacteria is used to make cheese and yogurt. Human muscle cells switch from aerobic respiration to lactic acid fermentation to generate ATP when O 2 is scarce. The waste product, lactate, may cause muscle fatigue, but ultimately it is converted back to pyruvate in the liver. Fermentation and cellular respiration are anaerobic and aerobic alternatives, respectively, for producing ATP from sugars. Both use glycolysis to oxidize sugars to pyruvate with a net production of 2 ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation. Both use NAD + as an oxidizing agent to accept electrons from food during glycolysis.
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course BSC BSC1005 taught by Professor Orlando,rebecca during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.