Eukaryotic Genes

Eukaryotic Genes - a promoter and ribosome binding site...

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Eukaryotic Genes Eukaryotic genes contain introns but bacteria do not contain the necessary enzymes to remove introns, so eukaryotic genes that are inserted into bacteria must be inserted without introns. Making Intron-Free DNA: The DNA of eukaryotes is extremely long, containing many thousands of genes. It is often not possible to find specific genes in the DNA. Artificial genes can be made, however, using mRNA as a template. In order to synthesize a gene, one must first obtain some mRNA produced by the gene in question. Recall that the introns of mature mRNA have already been removed. Reverse transcriptase (from retroviruses, see discussion above ) is used to produce a DNA copy of the mRNA. This copy is called cDNA. Expression Vectors The promoter and ribosome binding site codes in Eukaryotic DNA are likely to be different than those used by the host organism. Plasmids called expression vectors have been created that have
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Unformatted text preview: a promoter and ribosome binding site that can be recognized by E. coli . These sites are adjacent to a restriction cutting site so that any gene inserted into the plasmid will be transcribed and translated by E. coli . Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes Artificial vectors have been developed that can be used for inserting large segments of DNA. These vectors are called bacterial artificial chromosomes. Transgenic Plants The only plasmid that plant cells take up is the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid from the bacterium Agrobacterium. The plasmid transferred by this bacterium causes plants to form a gall. A wide variety of plant cells will take up the plasmid and move it into a chromosome. Scientists have been able to remove the gall-forming genes and insert other genes into the plasmid. As a result, this plasmid has enabled genetic engineering of a large number of plants....
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