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Mapping - o DNA separated by size(1st base in sequence...

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Mapping, Sequencing genome maps - linkage maps showing relative location of genes 1st map made in 1911 when 5 genes of Drosophila mapped distances measured in centimorgans (cM) genetic maps - distances between genes found by recombination frequencies physical maps - diagrams showing relative landmarks within sequences o landmark - specific DNA sequences, where restriction enzymes cut DNA o contig - contiguous segment of genome made from pieces cut by restriction enzymes sequenced-tagged sites (STS) - 100-500 base-pair sequence of a clone o physical map can be made by overlapping STSs o useful when 2 different groups working on certain nonsequenced DNA sequencing - automated sequencing required for the very large genomes automated sequencers - provides accurate sequences for up to 500 base-pairs o errors still possible, 5-10 copies used o DNA prepared w/ fluorescent nucleotides, unlabeled nucleotides o fluorescent nucleotides lack hydroxyl groups, halt replication
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Unformatted text preview: o DNA separated by size (1st base in sequence found in shortest band, last base in sequence found in longest band) • artificial chromosome- used to clone larger DNA pieces o contained replication origin (to replicate independently of genome) and centromere sequences (for stability) o bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) - used for large-scale sequencing, accepts DNA inserts 100-200kb long • clone-by-clone sequencing- physical mapping followed by sequencing o cuts DNA fragments which are each cloned into smaller fragments • shotgun sequencing- sequencing all the clone fragments all at once, uses computer to put together overlaps o assembles consensus sequence from multiple copies of sequenced regions o doesn’t use extra info about genome human genome project- 3.2 gigabase nucleotide sequence in humans • number of genes doesn’t indicate complexity of organism (rice has more genes than humans) • physical map finished on June 26, 2000...
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