Mitosis - chromosomes. Genes A small segment of DNA that...

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Mitosis Introductory Concepts Chromatin, Chromosomes Chromatin is a mass of uncoiled DNA and associated proteins called histones . When cell division begins, DNA coils around the proteins forming visible structures called chromosomes . Below: Human chromosomes (female) Haploid, Diploid Diploid cells (2N) have two complete sets of chromosomes. The body cells of animals are diploid. Haploid cells have one complete set of chromosomes. In animals, gametes (sperm and eggs) are haploid. Homologous Chromosomes Homologous chromosomes are two chromosomes that are the same. This happens because diploid organisms have two of each chromosome. Each of the pairs is a homologous pair. One of the homologous chromosomes was inherited from the individual's mother and the other one was inherited from the individual's father. For example, the two chromosomes #1 are homologous. However, a chromosome #1 and a chromosome #2 are not homologous because they are different
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Unformatted text preview: chromosomes. Genes A small segment of DNA that contains the information necessary to construct a protein or part of a protein (polypeptide) is called a gene. Genes are the unit of inheritance. Metaphase ends when chromosomes split, thus doubling the number of chromosomes. M-Cyclin M-Kinase combines with M-cyclin and the active complex initiates several mitotic events: 1. chromosome condensation (coiling) 2. nuclear membrane disintegration 3. the synthesis of the spindle apparatus The active kinase-cyclin complex also activates enzymes that destroy the M-cyclin. Prokaryotes Prokaryotic cells do not undergo mitosis. When the cell divides, the circular chromosome replicates itself (DNA synthesis) and the cell pinches into two. This process is called binary fission ....
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course BSC BSC1005 taught by Professor Orlando,rebecca during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Mitosis - chromosomes. Genes A small segment of DNA that...

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