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Niches - natural selection makes competing organisms...

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Niches community  - species found at a certain area individualistic concept - community nothing more than collection of organisms that happen to live in same place holistic concept - community acts as integrated unit (superorganism) ecotones - area where environment suddenly changes niche  - role an organism plays in the ecosystem interspecific competition - when not enough resource for 2 organisms o interference competition - fighting over resources o exploitative competition - consuming shared resources fundamental niche - entire niche that organism can use realized niche - actual niche that organism occupies competitive exclusion - no 2 organisms can occupy same niche if resources limited o species that can use resource more efficiently will prevail o can subdivide niche to avoid direct competition o grow more similar >> more likely to compete sympatric species - avoid competition by living in different parts of habitat or using different resources character displacement
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Unformatted text preview: - natural selection makes competing organisms different coevolution between predator/prey - populations oscillate since predator depends on prey • lag and offset oscillations between predator/prey • keystone species - presence has much influence on the community o ex. beavers predation - consuming of 1 organism by another • kill predator >> increase prey population • coevolution >> predator/prey continually develop better offense/defense • plant defenses- mostly uses morphological defenses (thorns, spines, hairs) o secondary chemical compounds - toxic or disturbs metabolism • animal defenses- tries to show predators that they taste bad o chemical defenses - used as weapons against predator o warning coloration - tells predators that they have toxic chemicals o cryptic coloration - blends in w/ surroundings • reduces competition • indirect effects - 1 organism affecting another indirectly through a 3rd organism...
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