Processing the mRNA Transcript

Processing the mRNA Transcript - Chemical energy is the...

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Processing the mRNA Transcript In eukaryotic cells, the newly-formed mRNA transcript (also called heterogenous nuclear RNA or hnRNA) must be further modified before it can be used. A cap is added to the 5’ end and a poly-A tail (150 to 200 Adenines) is added to the 3’end of the molecule. Eukaryotic genes contain regions that are not translated into proteins. These regions of DNA are called introns and must be removed from mRNA. Their function is not well understood. The remaining portions of DNA that are translated into protein are called exons . After intron- derived regions are removed from mRNA, the remaining fragments- derived from exons- are spliced together to form a mature mRNA transcript . Forms of Energy These forms of energy are important to life: chemical radiant heat mechanical electrical nuclear Energy can be transformed from one form to another.
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Unformatted text preview: Chemical energy is the energy contained in the chemical bonds of molecules. Radiant energy travels in waves and is sometimes called electromagnetic energy. An example is visible light. Photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy. Energy that is stored is called potential energy . Laws of Thermodynamics 1 st law- Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can be converted from one form to another. The sum of the energy before the conversion is equal to the sum of the energy after the conversion. 2 nd law- Some usable energy dissipates during transformations and is lost. During changes from one form of energy to another, some usable energy dissipates, usually as heat. The amount of usable energy therefore decreases....
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Processing the mRNA Transcript - Chemical energy is the...

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