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Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells - • rotated like a screw...

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Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells prokaryotes - simplest organisms 2 main groups - archaebacteria, bacteria no distinct interior compartments perform photosynthesis, break down dead organisms, cause diseases cell wall - surrounds most prokaryotic cells peptidoglycan - sugar polymers cross-linked by polypeptides; found in bacteria walls protects cell, maintains shape, prevents overdose of water gram-positive bacteria - have thick, single-layered cell wall; turns purple from gram staining gram-negative bacteria - more complex bacteria w/ multilayered cell wall; doesn't turn purple, turns red drugs often destroy bacteria's cell wall to kill it disease-causing bacteria secrete a jellylike capsule of polysaccharides to allow it to cling to different surfaces flagellum - long threadlike structure used by some prokaryotes to move protein fibers extending from the bacteria cell could be more than 1 per cell, depending on the species of bacteria
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Unformatted text preview: • rotated like a screw to propel the cell forward • uses proton gradient on the membrane to power the flagellum's mov't (process also used by some enzymes that produce ATP in mitochondria/chloroplasts) prokaryotic interior organization- very simple, no membrane-bounded organelles • no interior support >> prokaryotic cell's strength depends on cell wall • membrane performs much of the tasks done by organelles in eukaryotes • prokaryote acts as a single unit (no specific task done only at a specific area) eukaryotes- much more complex than prokaryotes • compartmentalization possible through endomembrane system and organelles • vesicles- sacs that store/transport certain materials • chromosomes- compact units of DNA • cytoskeleton- internal protein support for the cell • animals and some protists lack cell walls • central vacuole- large sac holding proteins, pigments, waste in plants Animal Cell Plant Cell...
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