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Unformatted text preview: protects embryo from drought, predator increases dispersal no need for water to reproduce pollination through wind, insects, mammals, birds gymnosperms - naked seeds, rests in cones includes oldest/largest trees o Bristle Cone Pines > 4000 years old o Giant Redwoods > 100 m Coniferophyta- pines, cedars, cypress, redwood o needle-like leaves o male cones smaller than female cones o male cones located below female cones >> cant self-fertilize o takes 2 years for cones to fully form Cycadophyta- tropical/subtropical o centrally-located cone o similar to pine life cycle Gnetophyta- closest to angiosperms, produces ephedrine Ginkgophyta- only 1 species (Ginkgo) o flagellated sperm o diecious - 1 sex, male/female trees o females stink because of seed (contains butyric/isobutyric acid)...
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