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structure_and_function_of_macromolecules

structure_and_function_of_macromolecules - Structure and...

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Structure and Function of Macromolecules Organic molecules that weigh more than 100,000 Dalton's are referred to as macromolecules. These macromolecules are constructed of smaller units called polymers. These polymers are subdivided into their basic units called monomers. Polymers account for the molecular uniqueness of organisms. Twenty amino acids are responsible for all forms of life. These amino acids form every conceivable protein known to man. Making and breaking of polymers : Dehydration synthesis: is an anabolic process by which two molecules are chemically bonded through the use of enzymes and a loss of water. Example: glucose + glucose = maltose + water. Hydrolysis : is a catabolic process by which the bond between monomers are broken by the enzyme and the addition of water. Example: Sucrose + water = glucose + fructose . Carbohydrates : include sugars and their polymers. They include monosaccharides disaccharides, and polysaccharides. The monosaccharide is a monomer, the disaccharide is a polymer,and the polysaccharides are macromolecules. Monosaccharides: The basic formula (CH 2 O) Examples: triose sugars, 3 carbons, glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone; pentose sugars. 5 carbons. ribose, deoxyribose, and ribulose; hexose sugars, 6 carbons, glucose, galactose, and fructose.
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Disaccharides : These are double sugars with the formula C 12 H 22 O 11 . Notice that one molecule of water is missing from the formula. The covalent bond holding the two monomers together is called a 1-4 or 1-2 glycoside linkage. Examples: sucrose = glucose + fructose . maltose = glucose + glucose, and lactose = glucose + galactose.
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