Temperature - Trypsin is found in the duodenum and...

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Temperature Higher temperature generally causes more collisions among the molecules and therefore increases the rate of a reaction. More collisions increase the likelihood that substrate will collide with the active site of the enzyme, thus increasing the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Above a certain temperature, activity begins to decline because the enzyme begins to denature . The rate of chemical reactions therefore increases with temperature but then decreases. pH Each enzyme has an optimal pH . A change in pH can alter the ionization of the R groups of the amino acids. When the charges on the amino acids change, hydrogen bonding within the protein molecule change and the molecule changes shape. The new shape may not be effective. The diagram below shows that pepsin functions best in an acid environment. This makes sense because pepsin is an enzyme that is normally found in the stomach where the pH is low due to the presence of hydrochloric acid.
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Unformatted text preview: Trypsin is found in the duodenum , and therefore, its optimum pH is in the neutral range to match the pH of the duodenum. Metabolic Pathways Metabolism refers to the chemical reactions that occur within cells. A hypothetical metabolic pathway is shown below. Reactions occur in a sequence and a specific enzyme catalyzes each step. Intermediates can be used as starting points for other pathways. For example, "C" in the diagram above can be used to produce "D" but can also be used to produce "F". Cyclic Pathways Some metabolic pathways are cyclic. The function of the cyclic pathway below is to produce E from A. Several intermediate steps are involved in the production of E. First, "A" combines with "F" to produce "B". "B" is then converted to "C", which is then converted to "D". "D" is then split to produce "E" (the desired product) and "F". "F" can be reused by combining with more "A"....
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