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Total Yield - glucose Usefulness of Fermentation Anaerobic...

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Total Yield Glycolysis produces 2 ATP; aerobic respiration produces 34 more ATP Pathway Substrate-Level Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation Total ATP Glycolysis 2 ATP 2 NADH = 4 - 6 ATP 6 - 8 CoA 2 NADH = 6 ATP 6 Krebs Cycle 2 ATP 6 NADH = 18 ATP 2 FADH 2 = 4 ATP 24 TOTAL 4 ATP 32 ATP 36 - 38 Fermentation Without oxygen, cellular respiration could not occur because oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport system . The electron transport system would therefore not be available. Glycolysis can occur without oxygen. Although glycolysis does not require oxygen, it does require NAD + . Cells without oxygen available need to regenerate NAD + from NADH so that in the absence of oxygen, at least some ATP can be made by glycolysis. To regenerate NAD + from NADH, the electrons from NADH are added to pyruvate to produce alcohol (plants, yeast) or lactate (animals, bacteria). The total ATP yield of fermentation comes from glycolysis; 2 ATP molecules are produced per
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Unformatted text preview: glucose. Usefulness of Fermentation Anaerobic exercise During vigorous exercise, oxygen is consumed faster than it is needed. Additional ATP energy is provided to the muscles by glycolysis and the result is a buildup of lactate in the muscles. When lactate builds up, the blood pH drops and the muscles fatigue. At rest, lactate is converted back to pyruvate (the oxygen debt is repaid). This is why you continue to breathe hard after you have finished running or rapid stair climbing. Yeast Yeast produce alcohol which accumulates in their environment. As the concentration of alcohol in their environment increases, it becomes more and more toxic to them. Beer and wine have a maximum alcohol concentration because a higher concentration will kill the yeast cells....
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