Transcription and translation are the two main processes linking gene to protein. Genes provide the instructions for making specific proteins. The bridge between DNA and protein synthesis is the nucleic acid RNA. RNA is chemically similar to DNA, except that it contains ribose as its sugar and substitutes the nitrogenous base uracil for thymine. An RNA molecule usually consists of a single strand. In DNA or RNA, the four nucleotide monomers act like the letters of the alphabet to communicate information. The specific sequence of hundreds or thousands of nucleotides in each gene carries the information for the primary structure of proteins, the linear order of the 20 possible amino acids. To get from DNA, written in one chemical language, to protein, written in another, requires two major stages: transcription and translation. During transcription, a DNA strand provides a template for the synthesis of a complementary RNA strand. o
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course BSC BSC1005 taught by Professor Orlando,rebecca during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.