APBIOHW11 - All DocsEdit Untitled document AP Biology...

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All DocsEdit Untitled document AP Biology Period – 3 Amit Patel p3 11/3/11 Homework #11 (091023): Chapter 11 (due Friday 091023) Total points: 20 for Attempt on all questions ONE Concept Map: 10 points Objectives An Overview of Cell Signaling 1. Describe the basic signal transduction pathway used for mating in yeast. Explain why we believe these pathways evolved before the first multicellular organisms appeared on Earth. The signal transduction pathway process: the signal on the cell is converted to a cellular response when received by proteins in the membrane. Yeast cells use markers to distinguish gender and than mate. Basic signal transduction pathway is a process by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into specific cellular response in series of steps. Molecular details of signal transduction in yeast and mammals are similar, but their last common ancestor lived billions of years ago, before multicellular organisms existed. - yeast -similarities -common ancestor billions of years ago -before existence of multicellular organisms 2. Define paracrine signaling and give an example. Paracrine signaling is localized signaling in animals, and numerous cells can simultaneously receive and send molecules of growth factor that was produced by other cells. Secreting cells acting on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator (growth factor) into extracellular fluid serves as an example of this. -paracrine signaling -local signaling in animals -numerous cells receive/respond -molecules of growth factor -ex: growth factor of a local regulator 3. Define local regulation and explain why hormones are not local regulators. A local regulator acts only on nearby cells and is used in paracrine signaling while a hormone is often used for bodywide changes that are too far apart to be local. -local regulator
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-short distances -hormones long-distance signaling 4. Explain how plant and animal hormones travel to target cells. During hormonal (endocrine) signaling in animals specialized cells make and release hormone molecules into blood vessels of circulatory that travel to target cells usually over long distances. Plant hormones that are often used as growth regulators travel in vessels, but often reach their
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course BIOL 701 taught by Professor Chan during the Spring '11 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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APBIOHW11 - All DocsEdit Untitled document AP Biology...

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