AP-BioHW7 - Homework #7 (091002): Chapter 6 (due Friday...

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Homework #7 (091002): Chapter 6 (due Friday 091002 ) Total points: 20 for Attempt on all questions ONE Concept Map: 10 points Amit Patel p3 10-14-11 Objectives 1. Distinguish between magnification and resolving power. Magnification measures the ratio of an object’s size in the microscope to its actual size, and resolution measures the clarity of an image in the microscope. -resolving-clarity -magnification- ratio of sizes 2. Describe the principles, advantages, and limitations of the light microscope, transmission electron microscope, and scanning electron microscope. The light microscope allows live organisms to be viewed and dynamic processes to be observed however it has limited magnification power. A TEM allows greater magnification but has no 3d image and is used to study large structures. An SEM provides the greatest detail and a 3d image but it can only be used on surfaces. -SEM- surfaces -TEM-ultrastructure -Light- dynamic processes 3. Describe the major steps of cell fractionation and explain why it is a useful technique. Cell fractionation is a process that uses an ultracentrifuge to spin broken cells until the heaviest organelles form a pellet at the bottom of the solution, and it is important to be able to study individual organelles in detail. -study individual parts in detail -ultracentrifuge -pellets of organelles 4. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are the simplest, oldest form of cells without a nucleus or any internal membranes, only ribosomes and DNA packed in a membrane. Eukaryotic cells, on the other hand, have nuclei and membrane organelles, they are typical to all species except bacteria, and they are also larger and more complex. -Eukaryotes- nucleus - Prokaryotes- DNA packed in center 5. Explain why there are both upper and lower limits to cell size. A cell must be large enough to house all of its DNA and all of its organelles and enough room for all its processes to occur. However, as a cell gets larger, the surface area to volume ratio decreases, and at a point, it gets too high for the cell to supply its volume with the limited surface area it has by diffusing materials. -too little surface area for moving things in and out of cell -to little volume to fit components 6. Explain the advantages of compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells. The dividing membranes are extremely useful as structures used in cell metabolism itself, and they also provide localized environments so that specific enzymes can better function.
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7. Describe the structure and function of the nuclear envelope, including the role of the pore complex. The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus and regulates traffic in, it has pores about 100 nm in diameter and it is made of two layers of lipid bilayers. The two layers are 30-40nm apart and the pores covered in intricate protein structures called pore complex lines used to route certain macromolecules. -envelope, pores
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AP-BioHW7 - Homework #7 (091002): Chapter 6 (due Friday...

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