Homework5 - Homework#5 Chapter 5 Total points 40 for...

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Homework #5 : Chapter 5 Total points: 40 for Attempt on all questions Concept Map: 10 points Amit Patel p3 9/19/11 1. List the four major classes of macromolecules. The 4 major classes of macromolecules include nucleic acids, the basis for inheritance, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Proteins serve as the catalysts of almost all of life’s reactions, and as the building blocks for many cell parts, they are manufactured by ribosomes. Lipids are mostly manufactured in the endoplasmic reticulum, and they serve as part of a cell’s membranes, energy storage, and also as steroids used to transmit signals in the body. Carbohydrates are used to store energy, to build fibers, and are the main source of immediate energy for the body. -Carbohydrates- immediate energy -lipids-membranes, storage -proteins- catalysts, parts of cell -nucleic acids- store hereditary information 2. Distinguish between monomers and polymers. Monomers are singular units of larger molecules. Polymers are the larger molecules made up of monomers. For example, amino acids are the monomers that make up the polymers proteins. -monomer- one unit -polymer- many monomers 3. Draw diagrams to illustrate condensation and hydrolysis reactions. 4. Distinguish among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. A monosaccharide is a monomer of a carbohydrate polymer. Monosaccharides are also useful to the cell on their own, and they are always some multiple of CH2O. Disaccharides are two monomers joined together. Finally polysaccharides, like starches are a large number of monomers covalently bonded together. -monosaccharide- one monomer -disaccharide- two monomers -polysaccharides- many monomers 5. Describe the formation of a glycosidic linkage. A glysodic linkage is formed when two monosaccharides join through a dehydration reaction. This releases a water molecule and forms a covalent bond between the monomers. -dehydration reaction
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-covalent bond -releases H2O 6. Distinguish between the glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose. Explain why the difference is biologically important. In a starch molecule, all the linkages are formed by glucose rings in the A form with hydroxyl groups above the plain of the molecule, causing the starch molecule to curl into a helix. However, in cellulose, the glucose molecules are in the B form, with all the hydroxyl groups below the plane, causing each one to have to be upsidedown from the others. This makes cellulose straight, with bonding sites for a parallel celluslose molecule to bond to also. This is an important difference because enzymes can’t dissolve cellulose and celluloses distinct straight structure makes it ideal to use
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course BIOL 701 taught by Professor Chan during the Spring '11 term at Georgia Tech.

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Homework5 - Homework#5 Chapter 5 Total points 40 for...

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