L6 - Lecture 6: Medical Institutions 1 2 Keywords - Anna...

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1 Lecture 6: Medical Institutions
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2
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3 Keywords • - Anna Morandi • - Jean Astruc • - Man-midwife • - William Hunter • - Sarah Stone • - Angélique-Marguerite Le Boursier du Coudray (known as Madame du Coudray)
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4 Agenda: - Changing theories of generation (Lecture 5) - Hospitals: - From multi-purpose institutions to highly specialized institutions. - Three aspects of hospital development: design, social, and medical function
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5 • SO MIDWIFERY: A PARTICULARLY INTERESTING EXAMPLE OF THE WAY IN WHICH MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE HAS BEEN HISTORICALLY USED TO DEFINE HOW GENDER ROLES HAVE BEEN HISTORICALLY DEFINED AND REPRESENTED
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6 ALONGSIDE MIDWIFERY, AN ARENA FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF GENDER, AND THE DEFINITION OF GENDER ROLES A N D I D E N T I T Y W A S T H A T O F GENERATION
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7 Harvey: Ex ovo omnia : ‘Everything from the egg’. • In 1651 William Harvey elaborated a new theory of generation that emphasizes the importance of the egg in animals, including mammals.
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8 GENERATION BECAME ONE OF THE MOST EXCITING TOPICS OF INQUIRY IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 17 th C. THANKS TO COUNTLESS DISSECTION AND MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS , SOME SUSTAINED THAT THEY OBSERVED: A) MINUTE ORGANISMS IN THE MALE SEMEN (ANIMALCULES), B) THAT HUMANS PRODUCED EGGS THAT WERE COMPARABLE TO THE EGGS PRODUCED BY VIVIPAROUS
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9 - AS MANY MINUTE OBJECTS HAD BEEN DISCOVERED WITH THE AID OF THE MICROSCOPE , PEOPLE WERE ENCOURAGED TO THINK THAT FULLY FORMED INDIVIDUALS INVISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE MIGHT ALREADY BE PRESENT IN EITHER THE MALE SEMEN OR THE FEMALE EGGS .
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10 Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Sperm of dogs and rabbits (1678)
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11 • THE FORMATION OF THE FOETUS WOULD THEN CONSIST NOT OF THE CREATION OF NEW FORMS BUT OF AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE AND HARDNESS OF PRE-EXISTING PARTS
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12 THIS THEORY CALLED ‘PRE-FORMATIONISM’ GAINED SUPPORT TOWARDS THE END OF THE 17 TH CENTURY AND BECAME VERY INFLUENTIAL UNTIL THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. FOR PREFORMATIONISTS , THE MAIN ISSUE OF DEBATE CENTRED ON WHETHER THIS TINY BEING WAS LOCATED IN THE FEMALE EGG OR THE MALE SEMEN . THE TWO SCHOOL OF THOUGHT CAME TO BE KNOWN AS OVISM AND ‘ ANIMALCULISM
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13 • - THE SUPPORTERS OF OVISM CLAIMED THAT THE NEW INDIVIDUAL WAS CONTAINED IN THE FEMALE EGG AND THAT THE SOLE PURPOSE OF THE MALE SEED WAS TO GIVE VITALITY TO THE FEMALE EGG .
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14 ‘A child in the egg’ The paradoxical discourse of F. M. Van Helmont , (London, 1685), part 2.
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15 • MANY HOWEVER SAW IN THIS POSITION AN INAPPROPRIATE REDUCTION OF THE MALE IN GENERATION . AND ARGUED FOLLOW ING LEEUWENHOEK THAT IN EACH ANIMALCULE CONTAINED IN THE MALE SEED THERE WAS A PREFORMED INDIVIDUAL , READY TO GROW.
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16 The homunculus in the sperm’ (N. Hartsoeker, 1694)
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17 • Wax-models of the unborn child during pregnancy • (Late 18th C)
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18 THE DEVELOPMENT OF PREFORMATIONISTS’ V IEW D ID NOT LEAD TO THE DEMISE OF EPIGENESIS . (NAMELY THE VIEW THAT INDIVIDUALS START FROM UNFORMED MATERIAL AND THE FORM EMERGES ONLY GRADUALLY OVER TIME ) THROUGHOUT THE 18 TH C, THE EPIGENESIS-PREFORMATIONISM CONTROVERSY REMAINED INTENSE .
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2012 for the course HPS 319 taught by Professor L.dacome during the Fall '11 term at University of Toronto.

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L6 - Lecture 6: Medical Institutions 1 2 Keywords - Anna...

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