L8 - Lecture 8: Medical Science 1 Exam structure: SECTION I...

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1 Lecture 8: Medical Science
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2 Exam structure : SECTION I Drawing on the course materials, choose and contextualize three of the following topics, and briefly explain their relevance to the history of medicine. (up 4 or 5 sentences, double-spaced - for each keyword)
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3 SECTION II Identify and contextualize one of the following texts : 2 paragraphs taken from the primary sources included in the readings (up to 1 page - double-spaced - full sentences)
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4 SECTION III Drawing on the course materials , write an essay on one of the following themes : ….. • (write up to 4 pages - double-spaced - full sentences)
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5 Keywords Auscultation Acclimatization James Lind Hans Sloane Conjuring medicine
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6 Agenda: • - Colonial medicine - final part • - The rise of laboratory medicine: • - old and new instruments • - from the body in parts to the cell • - the emergence of germ theory • - the consolidation of laboratory medicine
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7 • So medicine was by and large a tool of colonial power
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8 • - EVEN WHEN SLAVERY ENDED, MEDICINE CONTINUED TO BE AN INSTRUMENT OF EMPIRE. - THE REPLICATION OF EUROPEAN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS CONTINUED INTO THE 19 TH C AND 20 TH CENTURIES. AND MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE CONTINUED TO PLAY A LEADING ROLE IN THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW SETTLER COLONIES.
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9 MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE ALSO BECAME FUNCTIONAL TO THE ELABORATION OF NEW IDEAS OF RACE , WHICH WAS IN TURN USED TO LEGITIMATE COLONIAL POLICIES .
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10 - UNTIL THE END OF THE 18 TH C, THE DIFFERENCES AMONG HUMAN BEINGS WERE EXPLAINED IN TERMS OF CLIMATE : - HUMAN DIVERSITY WAS THE PRODUCT OF ACCLIMATIZATION AND ADAPTATION TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS.
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11 - HOWEVER IN 1850 A NEW CONCEPT OF ‘RACE’ EMERGED IN WHICH GREATER STRESS WAS PLACED ON INNATE DIFFERENCES, THE LIMITS OF HUMAN ADAPTATION, THE DOMINANCE OF NATURE OVER ENVIRONMENT AND EVOLUTIONARY HIERARCHY OF HUMAN TYPES .
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12 - MEDICAL SERVICES DIRECTLY SUPPORTED COLONIAL ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS INTO THE 20th C . IN SMALL COLONIES, EUROPEAN TRAINED DOCTORS, WHO WERE OFTEN MILITARY MEN WORKED OFTEN IN DIFFICULT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS TO PROMOTE THE HEALTH OF EUROPEANS AND CONTROL THE EPIDEMICS THAT THREATENED TRADE AND SOCIAL ORDER.
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13 • - PART OF THE PROPAGANDA WAS THAT MEDICINE PLAYED A PART IN THE ALLEGEDLY ‘CIVILIZING MISSION’ THAT WAS PROPOSED AS PART OF COLONIALISM. • - AS YOU HAVE SEEN IN THE READINGS, THIS ALLEGEDLY CIVILIZING MISSION BUILT ON DEROGATORY PICTURES OF THE COLONIZED LANDS, WHICH WOULD BE PORTRAYED AS A PLACE OF DISEASE .
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14 • - IN 19TH C INDIA LIKE IN THE AMERICAS, MEDICINE SERVED THE INTERESTS OF COLONIAL RULERS BY PROTECTING THE HEALTH OF ARMIES AND ADMINISTRATORS .
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15 • - DISEASE PRESENTED A MAJOR PROBLEM FOR IMPERIAL POWERS: • - IN INDIA SETTLERS WERE ISOLATED AND SEGREGATED IN CAMPS WHERE THEY BENEFITED FROM IMPROVED WATER SUPPLIES, SAFE SEWAGE SYSTEMS AND HAD REDUCED CONTACT WITH INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY .
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16 • - MEDICINE ALSO SERVED AS A TOOL OF EMPIRE WHEN APPLIED TO INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS .
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L8 - Lecture 8: Medical Science 1 Exam structure: SECTION I...

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