L6 - Lecture 6 Separation Theory 1 Chromatography Definition Separation of components in a mixture based on the differential movement through a

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Lecture 6 Separation Theory 1
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Chromatography Definition Separation of components in a mixture based on the differential movement through a porous media under the influence of a mobile phase differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases
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Compounds of interest stick to sorbent Solid Phase Extraction Load (sample) Compounds of interest released from sorbent Waste Eluent (solvent) Extract A little bit extreme case Reduce time
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Compounds of interest in a plug Chromatography Load Sample (injection) Differential interaction with stationary phase separates compounds in time and space. Detector Mobile phase Detector Mobile phase
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t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 Column elution chromatography t 0 t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases.
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First Chromatography Column toluene sample invented by a Russian botanist Mikhail Tsvet in 1906 during his research on plant pigments glass column packed with shells (calcium carbonate) – sorbent elute with a mixture of ether and ethanol chlorophylls and carotenoids Normal phase
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How can we separate volatile/non- volatile compounds? Volatile compounds Non-volatile compounds Only one distillation process Only one Liquid-liquid extraction
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Gas chromatography (GC) Mobile phase : Gas Stationary phase : Packed or open tubular columns 1. Gas – solid ( Packed ) constructed from stainless steel or pyrex adsorption 2 – 4 mm I.D., 1 – 4 m long gas analysis thermally labile materials
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Mobile phase : Gas Stationary phase : Packed or open tubular columns 2. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) Polymide coating with inner fused silica Liquid adsorbed or bonded to a solid surface Partition between gas and liquid 100 - 500 mm I.D. 10 - 100 m long, the film 0.2 – 1um thick Gas chromatography (GC) Polymide coating fused silica
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Gas-liquid chromatography Silica support Stationary phase GC - gas chromatography open tubular columns Gas (mobile phase) Theoretical plate
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Liquid chromatography (LC) Mobile phase : Liquid (water miscible solvent) Stationary phase: 1. Liquid adsorbed or bonded to a solid surface Liquid-liquid partition
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Liquid chromatography (LC) Mobile phase : Liquid (water miscible solvent) Stationary phase 2. Solid Liquid-solid adsorption
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Liquid chromatography (LC) Mobile phase : Liquid (water miscible solvent) Stationary phase : 3. Ion-exchange resin Ion exchange
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Liquid chromatography (LC) Mobile phase : Liquid (water miscible solvent) Stationary phase 4. Liquid in interstices of a polymeric solid Size exclusive, sieving
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Liquid chromatography (LC) Mobile phase : Liquid (water miscible solvent) Stationary phase 5. Group specific liquid bonded to a solid surface
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2012 for the course CHM 410 taught by Professor - during the Fall '11 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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L6 - Lecture 6 Separation Theory 1 Chromatography Definition Separation of components in a mixture based on the differential movement through a

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