Lec15_SocialTheories2121

Lec15_SocialTheories2121 - PartIII:SocialDevelopment...

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Part III: Social Development
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Four major  theories/frameworks 1. 2. Learning 3. Social cognitive 4. Ecological
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PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES 1
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Psychoanalytic theories Image of child’s nature Individual buffeted about by many forces, both  internal and external, that he cannot control Central issues Continuity/discontinuity Individual differences Came out of favor because tenets are  untestable Lasting contributions Role of early experience Role of unconscious
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Freud’s theory Individual’s  psychic energy  focused in  different  erogenous zones Psychic energy Biologically  based, instinctual drives that  motivate behavior, thoughts, and feeling  (unconscious) Erogenous zones areas that are erotically sensitive (mouth, anus,  genitals) Needs of each stage must be met for  successful development
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Structure of Personality Over five stages, three  personality structures  develop: Id Drives Ego Rational and logical channels needs of id Superego controls behavior on  basis of what is right  and wrong conscience/morality
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Freud’s theory of psychosexual  development 1. Oral stage: First year Main drive = hunger (establishes mouth as erogenous zone) The id: source of psychic energy “Pleasure principle” Ego develops later in first year “Reality principle” Resolves demands of id with constraints imposed from outside  (rider on horse) Nursing establishes mother as love object, a proto-type of all  later love relations Security balanced by fear of loss
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Freud, continued 2. Anal stage: 2 nd  year to age 3 Emergence of self-control Pleasure from defecation Conflict with parents begins 2. Phallic stage: 3-6 years Psychic energy migrates to genitalia Masturbation emerges and is punished by  parents Superego  emerges from internalization  of  parents’ standards
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Freud, continued 4. Latency period, age 6-12 years Sexual urges hidden in unconscious Psychic energy channeled into  acceptable pursuits 4. Genital stage: 12 years and beyond Sexual energy emerges and is directed  toward opposite-sex peers Ego can cope with reality; superego is not  too weak or too strong
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Freud: What can go wrong? If child’s fundamental needs are not met  in a stage, child can become fixated  on  those needs, for example Inadequate oral gratification—substitutes  like nail-biting, overeating, smoking Harsh toilet training—anal retentive or anal  explosive
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development Picks up on idea that each  stage must be passed  successfully Each stage has “crisis” to be  overcome Eight stages—span entire  life (we’ll cover first five,  following book)
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2012 for the course PSY 0310 taught by Professor Strauss during the Spring '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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Lec15_SocialTheories2121 - PartIII:SocialDevelopment...

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