ZOO3731_chptrs.21-23

ZOO3731_chptrs.21-23 - The Cardiovascular System...

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Unformatted text preview: The Cardiovascular System Circulating fluid (blood) The Heart Blood vessels Physical Characteristics of Blood Sticky, opaque fluid Color varies from scarlet (O2 rich) to dark red (O2 poor) More dense than water, slightly alkalinic (7.35-7.45) Temperature:(38C or 100F) 8% of body weight, 5-6L(volume) Functions Distribution Deliver oxygen from lungs & nutrients from GI tract to cells Transport metabolic wastes from cells to elimination sites (lungs, kidneys) Transport hormones Functions Regulation Maintenance of body temperature Maintenance of pH;proteins act as buffers Maintenance of adequate fluid volume in circulatory system Functions Protection Prevention of blood loss Prevention of infection Blood Composition Blood Plasma 90% water; 55% of whole blood volume 100 dissolved solutes (nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, cell activity products Plasma proteins: (1)Albumin accounts for 60% of plasmic proteins; (2) immunoglobulins, transport proteins (35%); (3) fibrinogen (4%) clotting reaction Blood Composition Formed Elements Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets Two of the three are not true cells Most of the formed elements short life spans Amitotic (renewed by bone marrow) Formed Elements Erythrocytes Biconcave shaped (maintained by spectrin) ideal for gas transport Anucleate, no organelles 97% Hb Hemocytoblast>proerythroblast>early erythroblast>late erythroblast >normoblast> reticulocyte>erythrocyte Blood typing:A, B, AB, O Formed Elements Leukocytes Provide immunity Less than 1% of total blood volume Diapedesis Amoebid motion Positive chemotaxis Leukopenia,leukocytosis Granulocytes, agranulocytes Granulocytes Neutrophils-Most numerous(70%);granules contain peroxidases and hydrolytic enzymes; polymorphonuclear; 1 st line of immune attack;defensins Eosinophils-(1-4%); bilobed red nucleus;lack bacteriolytic enzymes;parasitic infections; inactivate allergic reactions Basophils-(0.5%);U or S shaped nucleus; release histamine/contain heparin Agranulocytes Monocytes-(4-8%); largest WBC; kidney shaped nuclei;metamorphose into macrophages Lymphocytes-(20-30%); 2 nd most numerous leukocyte;scant cytoplasm;lymphatic system component;specific immunity T cells-attack foreign cells directly; B cells-change into plasma cells that secrete antibodies; NK cells- immune surveillance Platelets Cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes Anucleate Regulated by thrombopoietin Hemostasis The Cardiovascular System:The Heart Overview Overview Heart chambers:Atria,ventricles Heart chambers:Atria,ventricles Pulmonary circuit Pulmonary circuit Systemic, coronary circuit Systemic, coronary circuit Arteries, veins, capillaries Arteries, veins, capillaries The Heart Size, Location, and Orientation Size, Location, and Orientation Weighs between 250-350 grams Weighs between 250-350 grams...
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ZOO3731_chptrs.21-23 - The Cardiovascular System...

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