ZOO3731_chptr.6-8 (1)

ZOO3731_chptr.6-8 (1) - Bone Classification • 206 named...

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Unformatted text preview: Bone Classification • 206 named bones • Axial skeleton • Appendicular skeleton • Shape classification: long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid Bone Classification(cont’d) • Long bones : length exceeds width;shaft & 2 ends;primarily compact w/spongy interior; ex. humerus, femur • Short bones : cubelike;spongy bone; ex. carpals, tarsals • Flat bones : thin,flattened, w/slight curvature;compact bone surfaces w/spongy layer; ex. sternum, ribs Bone Classification(cont’d) • Irregular bone : complicated shapes & mostly spongy bone; ex. vertebra, pelvis • Sesamoid:short bone,forms within tendon;patella Bone Functions • Support-hard framework;supports body wall (limbs, rib cage) • Protection-braincase, vert.foramina • Movement-levers • Storage • Blood cell formation Bone Structure • Bones are organs-osseous tissue, along with nervous,cartilaginous,fibrous CT • Osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts Textures: Compact vs Spongy • Compact-dense, smooth,solid outer layer • Spongy bone-honeycomblike; trabeculae Structure of Typical Long Bone • Diaphysis-compact bone surrounds cavity;yellow marrow evident in adults • Epiphyses-compact exterior,spongy interior;hyaline cartilage on joint surface Structure of Typical Long Bone (cont’d) • Periosteum-double layered (outer & inner);fibrous outer, inner has osteoblasts & osteoclasts;Sharpey’s fibers • Endosteum-lines marrow; osteoblasts & osteoclasts Structure of short, irregular & flat bones • Non-cylindrical • No marrow cavity • Diplöe-internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones Hematopoietic Tissue • Red marrow • In newborns, red marrow predominate cavities • Adults: RBC produced in femoral& humeral head, diploe of sternum, & irregular bones (pelvic) Microscopic Structure of Bone • Compact bone-has osteons • Osteon-has Haversian system • Haversion system-central canal, Volkmann’s canal, lacunar osteocytes, & canaliculi • Spongy bone Chemical Composition of Bone • Organic components-Osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts;glycoproteins & collagen fibers • Inorganic components-hydroxyapatites (Ca phosphate/hydroxide),Ca carbonate & ions • Organic/inorganic combo gives durability/strength w/o being brittle Bone Markings • Muscle & ligament attachment projections- tuberosity, crest, line, tubercle, trochanter, epicondyle, spine • Joint forming projections-head,facet, condyle, ramus • Depressions/openings for blood vessels & nerves-meatus, groove, fossa, foramen • 80 bones 80 bones • The Skull The Skull • Vertebral Column Vertebral Column • Bony Thorax Bony Thorax • Neurocranium (8) Neurocranium (8)-Enclose brain and protect organs of hearing and equilibrium....
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This note was uploaded on 12/31/2011 for the course ZOO 3731 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at FIU.

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ZOO3731_chptr.6-8 (1) - Bone Classification • 206 named...

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