Tinnitus-slides-030122 - Tinnitus Grand Rounds January 22,...

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Unformatted text preview: Tinnitus Grand Rounds January 22, 2003 Gordon Shields, MD Francis Quinn, MD “…only my ears whistle and buzz continuously day and night. I can say I am living a wretched life.” Ludwig Von Beethoven ­ 1801 Tinnitus Tinnitus • • • • • • • Definition Classification Objective tinnitus – pulsatile Subjective tinnitus Theories Evaluation Treatment Introduction Introduction • Tinnitus ­“The perception of sound in the absence of external stimuli.” • Tinnere – means “ringing” in Latin • Includes Buzzing, roaring, clicking, pulsatile sounds Tinnitus Tinnitus • • • May be perceived as unilateral or bilateral Originating in the ears or around the head First or only symptom of a disease process or auditory/psychological annoyance Tinnitus Tinnitus • • • • 40 million affected in the United States 10 million severely affected Most common in 40­70 year­olds More common in men than women Classification Classification • Objective tinnitus – sound produced by paraauditory structures which may be heard by an examiner • Subjective tinnitus – sound is only perceived by the patient (most common) Tinnitus Tinnitus • Pulsatile tinnitus – matches pulse or a rushing sound – – – Possible vascular etiology Either objective or subjective Increased or turbulent bloodflow through paraauditory structures Objective ­Pulsatile tinnitus Objective ­Pulsatile tinnitus • Arteriovenous malformations • Vascular tumors • Venous hum • Atherosclerosis • Ectopic carotid artery • Persistent stapedial artery • Dehiscent jugular bulb • Vascular loops • • • • • • Cardiac murmurs Pregnancy Anemia Thyrotoxicosis Paget’s disease Benign intracranial hypertension Arteriovenous malformations Arteriovenous malformations • Congenital lesions • Occipital artery and transverse sinus, internal carotid and vertebral arteries, middle meningeal and greater superficial petrosal arteries • Mandible • Brain parenchyma • Dura Arteriovenous malformations Arteriovenous malformations • • • • Pulsatile tinnitus Headache Papilledema Discoloration of skin or mucosa Vascular tumors Vascular tumors • Glomus tympanicum Paraganglioma of middle ear Pulsatile tinnitus which may decrease with ipsilateral carotid artery compression – Reddish mass behind tympanic membrane which blanches with positive pressure – Conductive hearing loss – – Vascular tumors Vascular tumors • Glomus jugulare – – – – Paraganlioma of jugular fossa Pulsatile tinnitus Conductive hearing loss if into middle ear Cranial neuropathies Venous hum Venous hum • • • • Benign intracranial hypertension Dehiscent jugular bulb Transverse sinus partial obstruction Increased cardiac output from – – – Pregnancy Thyrotoxicosis Anemia • • • • • • • Benign Intracranial Benign Intracranial Hypertension Young, obese, female patients Hearing loss Aural fullness Dizziness Headaches Visual disturbance Papilledema, pressure >200mm H20 on LP Benign Intracranial Benign Intracranial Hypertension • Sismanis and Smoker 1994 – – – – 100 patients with pulsatile tinnitus 42 found to have BIH syndrome 16 glomus tumors 15 atherosclerotic carotid artery disease BIH Syndrome BIH Syndrome • Treatment – – – – Weight loss Diuretics Subarachnoid­peritoneal shunt Gastric bypass for weight reduction Muscular Causes of Tinnitus Muscular Causes of Tinnitus • Palatal myoclonus Clicking sound Rapid (60­200 beats/min), intermittent Contracture of tensor palantini, levator palatini, levator veli palatini, tensor tympani, salpingopharyngeal, superior constrictors – Musclespasm seen orally or transnasally – Rhythmic compliance change on tympanogram – – – Myoclonus Myoclonus • Palatal myoclonus associations: – Multiple Sclerosis and other degenerative neurological disorders – Small vessel disease – Tumors • treatments: muscle relaxants, botulinum toxin injection Stapedius Muscle Spasm Stapedius Muscle Spasm • Idiopathic stapedial muscle spasm – – – – – Rough, rumbling, crackling sound Exacerbated by outside sounds Brief and intermittent May be able to see tympanic membrane movement Treatments: avoidance of stimulants, muscle relaxants, sometimes surgical division of tensor tympani and stapedius muscles Patulous Eustachian Tube Patulous Eustachian Tube • • • • Eustachian tube remains open abnormally Ocean roar sound Changes with respiration Lying down or head in dependent position provides relief Patulous Eustachian Tube Patulous Eustachian Tube • Tympanogram will show changes in compliance with respiration • Significant weight loss, radiation to the nasopharynx • Previous treatments: caustics, mucosal irritants, saturated solution of potassium iodide, Teflon or gelfoam injection around torus tubarius Subjective Tinnitus Subjective Tinnitus • Much more common than objective • Usually nonpulsatile • • • • • • • • • • • • • Presbycusis Noise exposure Meniere’s disease Otosclerosis Head trauma Acoustic neuroma Drugs Middle ear effusion TMJ problems Depression Hyperlipidemia Meningitis Syphilis Conductive hearing loss Conductive hearing loss • Conductive hearing loss decreases level of background noise • Normal paraauditory sounds seem amplified • Cerumen impaction, otosclerosis, middle ear effusion are examples • Treating the cause of conductive hearing loss may alleviate the tinnitus Other subjective tinnitus Other subjective tinnitus • Poorly understood mechanisms of tinnitus production • Abnormal conditions in the cochlea, cochlear nerve, ascending auditory pathways, auditory cortex • Hyperactive hair cells • Chemical imbalance CNS Mechanisms CNS Mechanisms • Reorganization of central pathways with hearing loss (similar to phantom limb pain) • Disinhibition of dorsal cochlear nucleus with increase in spontaneous activity of central auditory system Neurophysiologic Model Neurophysiologic Model • Proposed by Jastreboff • Result of interaction of subsystems in the nervous system • Auditory pathways playing a role in development and appearance of tinnitus • Limbic system responsible for tinnitus annoyance • Negative reinforcement enhances perception of tinnitus and increases time it is perceived Role of Depression Role of Depression • Depression is more prevalent in patients with chronic tinnitus than in those without tinnitus • Folmer et al (1999) reported patients with depression rated the severity of their tinnitus higher although loudness scores were the same • Which comes first, depression or tinnitus? Drugs that cause tinnitus Drugs that cause tinnitus • Antinflammatories • Antibiotics (aminoglycosides) • Antidepressants (heterocyclines) • • • • Aspirin Quinine Loop diuretics Chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, vincristine) Evaluation ­ History Evaluation ­ History • • • • • • • Careful history Quality Pitch Loudness Constant/intermittent Onset Alleviating/aggravating factors Evaluation ­ History Evaluation ­ History • • • • • • • • • • Infection Trauma Noise exposure Medication usage Medical history Hearing loss Vertigo Pain Family history Impact on patient Evaluation – Physical Exam Evaluation – Physical Exam Complete head & neck exam General physical exam Otoscopy (glomus tympanicum, dehiscent jugular bulb) • Search for audible bruit in pulsatile tinnitus • • • – Auscultate over orbit, mastoid process, skull, neck, heart using bell and diaphragm of stethoscope – Toynbee tube to auscultate EAC Evaluation – Physical Exam Evaluation – Physical Exam • Light exercise to increase pulsatile tinnitus • Light pressure on the neck (decreases venous hum) • Valsalva maneuver (decrease venous hum) • Turning the head (decrease venous hum) Evaluation ­ Audiometry Evaluation ­ Audiometry • PTA, speech descrimination scores, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes • Pitch matching • Loudness matching • Masking level Evaluation ­ Audiometry Evaluation ­ Audiometry • Vascular or palatomyoclonus induced tinnitus – graph of compliance vs. time • Patulous Eustachian tube – changes in compliance with respiration • Asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss or speech discrimination, unilateral tinnitus suggests possible acoustic neuroma ­ MRI From: Tyler RS, Babin RW. Tinnitus. In: Cummings CW, ed. Otolaryngology­Head and Neck Surgery, second edition. St. Louis, Mosby­Year Book, 1993:3032. Laboratory studies Laboratory studies • As indicated by history and physical exam • Possibilities include: – – – – – Hematocrit FTA absorption test Blood chemistries Thyroid studies Lipid battery Imaging Imaging Pulsatile tinnitus Reviewed by Weissman and Hirsch (2000) Contrast enhanced CT of temporal bones, skull base, brain, calvaria as first­line study • Sismanis and Smoker (1994) recommended CT for retrotympanic mass, MRI/MRA if normal otoscopy • • • • Glomus tympanicum – bone algorithm CT scan best shows extent of mass • May not be able to see enhancement of small tumor • Tumor enhances on T1­weighted images with gadolinium or on T2­weighted images Glomus Tympanicum Glomus Tympanicum From: Weissman JL, Hirsch BE. Imaging of tinnitus: a review. Radiology 2000;216:343. Glomus Tympanicum Glomus Tympanicum From: Weissman JL, Hirsch BE. Imaging of tinnitus: a review. Radiology 2000;216:343. Imaging Imaging • Glomus jugulare Erosion of osseous jugular fossa Enhance with contrast, may not be able to differentiate jugular vein and tumor – Enhance with T1­weighted MRI with gadolinium and on T2­weighted images – Characteristic “salt and pepper” appearance on MRI – – Glomus jugulare Glomus jugulare From: Weissman JL, Hirsch BE. Imaging of tinnitus: a review. Radiology 2000;216:344. Glomus jugulare Glomus jugulare “salt and pepper appearance” From: Weissman JL, Hirsch BE. Imaging of tinnitus: a review. Radiology 2000;216:344. Imaging Imaging • Arteriovenous malformations – readily apparent on contrasted CT and MRI • Normal otoscopic exam and pulsatile tinnitus may be dural arteriovenous fistula – Often invisible on contrasted CT and MRI/MRA – Angiography may be only diagnostic test Imagining Imagining • Shin et al (2000) – – MRI/MRA initially if subjective pulsatile tinnitus Angiography if objective with audible bruit in order to identify dural arteriovenous fistula Imaging Imaging • • • • • Other contrast enhanced CT diagnoses Aberrant carotid artery Dehiscent carotid artery Dehiscent jugular bulb Persistent stapedial artery – Soft tissue on promontory – Enlargement of facial nerve canal – Absence of foramen spinosum Persistent Stapedial Artery Persistent Stapedial Artery From: Araujo MF et al. Radiology quiz case I: persistent stapedial artery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002;128:456. Imaging Imaging • Acoustic Neuroma – Unilateral tinnitus, asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss or speech descrimination scores – T1­weighted MRI with gadolinium enhancement of CP angle is study of choice – Thin section T2­weighted MRI of temporal bones and IACs may be acceptable screening test Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic Neuroma From: Weissman JL, Hirsch BE. Imaging of tinnitus: a review. Radiology 2000;216:348. Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic Neuroma From: Weissman JL, Hirsch BE. Imaging of tinnitus: a review. Radiology 2000;216:348. Imaging Imaging • Benign intracranial hypertension – – – MRI Small ventricles Empty sella BIH – Empty Sella BIH – Empty Sella Sismanis A, Smoker W. Pulsatile tinnitus: recent advances in diagnosis. Laryngoscope 1994;104:685. Treatments Treatments • Multiple treatments • Avoidance of dietary stimulants: coffee, tea, cola, etc. • Smoking cessation • Avoid medications known to cause tinnitus • Reassurance • White noise from radio or home masking machine Treatments ­ Medicines Treatments ­ Medicines • Many medications have been researched for the treatment of tinnitus: – Intravenous lidocaine suppresses tinnitus but is impractical to use clinically – Tocainide is oral analog which is ineffective – Carbamazepine ineffective and may cause bone marrow suppression Treatments ­ Medicines Treatments ­ Medicines • Alprazolam (Xanax) – Johnson et al (1993) found 76% of 17 patients had reduction in the loudness of their tinnitus using both a tinnitus synthesizer and VAS (dose 0.5mg­ 1.5 mg/day) – Dependence problem, long­term use is not recommended Treatments ­ Medicines Treatments ­ Medicines • Nortriptyline and amitriptyline – – – May have some benefit Dobie et al reported on 92 patients 67% nortriptlyine benefit, 40%placebo • Ginko biloba – Extract at doses of 120­160mg per day – Shown to be effective in some trials and not in others – Needs further study Treatments Treatments • Hearing aids – amplification of background noise can decrease tinnitus • Maskers – produce sound to mask tinnitus • Tinnitus instrument – combination of hearing aid and masker Treatments Treatments • Tinnitus Retraining Therapy – – Based on neurophysiologic model Combination of masking with low level broadband noise for several hours per day and counseling to achieve habituation of the reaction to tinnitus and perception of the tinnitus itself Treatments Treatments • Electrical stimulation of the cochlea – Transcutaneous, round window, promontory stimulation have all been tried – Direct current can cause permanent damage – Steenersen and Cronin have used transcutaneous stimulation of the auricle and tragus decreasing tinnitus in 53% of 500 patients Treatments Treatments • Cochlear implants – – Have shown some promise in relief of tinnitus Ito and Sakakihara (1994) reported that in 26 patients implanted who had tinnitus 77% reported either tinnitus was abolished or suppressed, 8% reported worsening Treatments Treatments • Surgery – Used for treatment of arteriovenous malformations, glomus tumors, otosclerosis, acoustic neuroma – Some authors have reported success with cochlear nerve section in patients who have intractable tinnitus and have failed all other treatments, this is not widely accepted Treatments Treatments • • • • • Biofeedback Hypnosis Magnetic stimulation Acupuncture Conflicting reports of benefit Conclusions Conclusions • Tinnitus is a common problem with an extensive differential • Need to identify medical process if involved • Pulsatile/Nonpulsatile is important distinction • Will only become more common with aging of our population • Research into mechanism and treatments is needed to better help our patients ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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