problem solving_reasoning_08

problem solving_reasoning_08 - Problem-Solving and...

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Unformatted text preview: Problem-Solving and Reasoning November 6, 2008 The Problem with problem-solving research In field research, there is often too much [complexity] to allow for definitive conclusions, and in laboratory research, there is usually too little complexity to allow for any interesting conclusions Brehmer & Drner (1993) Computers in Human Behavior , 9 , 171-183 Salient differences between puzzle problems and real-world problems Puzzles unfamiliar involve no prior knowledge all necessary info. is present in the problem statement requirements are unambiguous Real-world problems familiar require prior knowledge necessary information often absent solver must ask what is the goal? Problem Examples Water jug problem Two-string problem Nine-dot problem Candle Box problem Missionaries and cannibals Tower of Hanoi You have three containers, one holding 8 quarts, one holding 5 quarts, and one holding 3 quarts. Starting with the 8-quart container full of water, and using no other measuring devices, give me back two containers each containing 4 quarts of water. 2-string problem Candle Box Problem (Duncker, 1945) Gestalt Viewpoint Problem-solving is both reproductive and productive Reproductive PS involves re-use of previous experience (can be beneficial or detrimental) Productive problem-solving is characterized by restructuring and insight Insight accompanied by subjective ah-ha experience Clinical Psychology Graduate Student constructing office furniture for student workspaces Gestalt Contributions Perception more than just association it involves conceptualization Functional Fixedness can hinder problem-solving (candle box problem) Problem restructuring : productive Development of insight Implication: importance of problem representation Information-Processing Approach to Problem-Solving Problem-Space Theory solving a problem involves negotiating alternative paths to a solution initial state is linked to goal state by a path knowledge states are produced by the application of mental operators algorithms vs. heuristics are used to move along the path limited processing resources provide constraints on the degree to which multiple moves can be considered Ohlssons Insight Theory Ohlssons Insight Theory Gestalt findings can be reinterpreted within PST multiple mental representations of the same problem specific knowledge operators needed are retrieved from memory current representation of the problem acts as a memory probe impasses in problem-solving are solved through re-representation elaboration constraint relaxation restructuring or recategorization Routine v. Insight Problems: A Routine v....
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course CLP 7934 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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problem solving_reasoning_08 - Problem-Solving and...

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