Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Fats, Oils, and Other Lipids and...

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Chapter 5 Fats, Oils, and Other Lipids and Other Lipids HPEB 502 – Spring 2011
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What Are Lipids and Why Do You Need Them? Lipids: category of compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that are hydrophobic (insoluble in water) Fats, solid at room temp Oils, liquid at room temp Three types of lipids: Triglycerides Sterols
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Lipid Functions in the Body Lipids perform important functions in the body: Insulates body and cushions organs Cell membranes
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Fatty Acids Vary in Length and Structure Fatty acids: chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with acid group (-COOH at one end) Variations in fatty acids – the length of the chain…the longer, the less water soluble In a single bond, one carbon is bonded to hydrogen A double bond has two carbons double bonded to each other…
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Types of Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids: all carbons bonded to hydrogen…solid at room temperature PAGE 132 IN TEXT!!!! Unsaturated fatty acids: 1 or more double bond between carbons (less saturated with hydrogen) liquid at room temperature Monounsaturated fatty acid: one double bond… olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil Polyunsaturated fatty acid: two or more double bonds
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Triglycerides Triglyceride: three fatty acids connected to glycerol backbone Most common lipid found in foods and body (95%) Referred to as fats Saturated fats have mostly saturated fatty acids Unsaturated fats have mostly unsaturated fatty acids
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Phospholipids Phospholipids: have glycerol backbone but two fatty acids and a phosphorus group Phosphorus-containing head is hydrophilic Fatty-acid tail is hydrophobic See Figure 5.7 for salad dressing visual lecithin
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Sterols Sterols are comprised mainly of four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen. Cholesterol – has no calories, found in animal products only Triglycerides have 9 calories per gram.
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Digesting Fat Mouth Stomach- enzymes break it down Small intestine Bile acids- help emulsify Pancreatic lipase- into small fatty acids Lecithin in bile packaged with monoglycerides and fatty acids to create micelles for absorption Short-chain fatty acids enter bloodstream and travel to liver Long-chain fatty acids enter lymph and need transport carriers
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Fat Absorption Lipoproteins transport fat through the lymph and blood. Chylomicrons: nearly all the triglycerides in our body Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Low-density lipoproteins (LDL, “bad” choesterol): High-density lipoproteins (HDL, “good” cholesterol):
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How Does Your Body Use Fat?
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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Fats, Oils, and Other Lipids and...

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