Chapter 7 Notes

# Chapter 7 Notes - Chapter 7: The Second and Third Law of...

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Chapter 7: The Second and Third Law of Thermodynamics

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Spontaneous change Spontaneous changes (natural processes) Heat flows from hot to cold Gas expands in a vacuum A ball will stop bouncing Non-spontaneous changes (unnatural) The reverse of above
Carnot heat engine The system receives heat Q H from the hot reservoir and loses heat Q C to the low Temperature reservoir, and does work on the surroundings U = q H + q C + w The second law says that qc cannot be zero, cannot convert q H completely into work

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Carnot Cycle For the cycle A A Ucyc = 0 = I (q 1 + w 1 ) + II(w 2 ) + III(q 3 + w 3 ) + IV(w 4 ) I II III I V
Carnot Theorem No engine that operates between two heat reservoirs can be more efficient that the reversible Carnot engine. rev

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The birth of entropy (S) = + = + - = + ∈= 0 give to Rearange 0 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 C H H C H C T q T q T T q q T T q q
Entropy (S) It appears that there is a property (q/T) that sums to zero for the cycle. This is a

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## This note was uploaded on 01/05/2012 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Freeman during the Fall '08 term at South Carolina.

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Chapter 7 Notes - Chapter 7: The Second and Third Law of...

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