bio_notes_4 (1)

bio_notes_4 (1) - BIO NOTES #4 Noelle Chasmar 4/11/11...

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BIO NOTES #4 Noelle Chasmar 4/11/11 Ecology -think about a community of a particular species occupying a particular environment -how many species are in it? What kind of species control? What interactions affect the types of species in a community? -over resources: if it can increase its mass in energy level overtime it can reproduce and expand…energy and reproduction. -2 populations may compete for access to or exploitation of a resource -looking at Competitive Interactions: -Competition: an interaction in which individuals acquire the same resources. 2 or more species compete for resources like E, matter, or space (mates, nutrients, etc) -the competitive exclusion principle : I) If 2 species require the same resource, then they cannot coexist indefinitely: will grow until one species will be better at acquiring the resources and the other will decline and become extinct. It’s inevitable force in the real world or this happens for other reasons. -note: key words identical and indefinitely: the exclusion principle is true, but not identical resources and infinity amt of time is real -note: populations can’t expand exponentially forever, because resources run out eventually. a)What would happen if same resource, but at different times? Temporal Separation: Ex 1) seasonal variation -evolution to reproduce at a diff. time Ex) flower competition for pollen: use same pollinating vector at diff. times -Diurnal Ex 2) spatial displacement : one species can forage in one location better than another species Ex) forage in different parts of the tree Ex 3) resource separation : now foraging on different things Ex) Galapagos Islands: beak sizes for foraging diff. seeds -the niche is : “conceptual” description of all the resources required by an organism. Many resource dimensions that restrict your niche. For humans: a very large number of dimensions. -fine tune concept of niche to…fundamental niche : range of resource space an organism could potentially use…NOTE pre-competition -realized niche: range of resources actually utilized after competition Ex) starlings: introduced to central park new York. Wants Shakespeare birds in his home country. The population took off all over north America. Invasive species. They find and put eggs in holes. So that’s a limited resource. Blue birds nest in cavities also. The cavity niche dimension for blue birds is in the starlings niche dimension. Starlings are larger so they competitively exclude bluebirds and will even kick them out of their nests. Blue birds were on their way out, but if it wasn’t for the realization of the limiting niche then they would be extinct. We created a part of the fundamental niche space that would remain the realized niche space for the blue birds after competition…blue bird box too small for starlings. THINK ABOUT THE WORLD: competition is a very real force.
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bio_notes_4 (1) - BIO NOTES #4 Noelle Chasmar 4/11/11...

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