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bio stuff 01.04.11 - 2 Connective Tissue Highly diverse...

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2. Connective Tissue Highly diverse group of cells that bind together with other tissues…and connects to others cells Individual cells that are widely spaced are connected by an extracellular matrix (ECM) These cells exude the matrix that takes up a wide variety of forms Connective tissue has two basic parts… o Ground substance o Fibers in the ECM Matrix type classifies connective tissue o Blood is a connective tissue and plasma is the matrix o Bone is a connective tissue and fibers that lay down the Calcium Carbonate is ECM 3. Muscle Tissue Uniquely animalian Cells are specialized for contractions o They slide past each other and contract Fig. 1. o They can’t re-expand o They always have an opposing muscle/force that stretches them out again Fig. 2. The ligament relaxes and then the ligament is what opens them up again They are often arranged in opposing muscle groups o Muscles are anchored at one end called the origin o The part that moves is called the insertion Groups are proportional in the context of the size of the muscle to the work it does. o Biceps and triceps are nearly the same because they do nearly equal work Fig. 3. Has complex methods of classification o Appearance Striated Smooth o Location Skeletal Cardiac Smooth o Voluntary/ Involuntary 4. Nervous Tissue Animalian Structure Transmission of electrical signals going a long length at a high speed Neuron is the basic unit Fig. 4. o Giraffe has a five meter long axon Classified in function
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o Sensory neurons – CNS o Motor neurons- muscles and glands o Interneurons- carries signals from one neuron to another Problems of Animals Animal must maintain structure in second law of thermodynamics Animal is 36% efficient animal Must also maintain homeostasis 1. Digestive System Digestion is the physical and chemical breakdown of food into “simple” organic molecules Problem of absorption of nutrients and energy o Must obtain more material than it needs and it needs a whole bunch more energy to power the machinery….but it needs to do so at a profit. o How do I take up nutrients when I don’t have a surface to do it? . . . A Portal Fig. 5. Oral Cavity o Capture and killing of food (African Fish Eye Predator and Cookie Cutter Sharks) o The physical destruction (or initiation of) food (Mastication) o Lubrication via secretions from the salivary glands gets food “juiced up” so it is
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