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Unformatted text preview: STATE-SPONSORED HOMOPHOBIA A WORLD SURVEY OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION LAWS: CRIMINALISATION, PROTECTION AND RECOGNITION 12TH EDITION MAY 2017 AENGUS CARROLL AND LUCAS RAMÓN MENDOS ilga.org This 12th edition of State Sponsored Homophobia report was researched and written by Aengus Carroll and Lucas Ramón Mendos and published by ILGA. It is copyright-free provided you cite both the author and the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA). Suggested citation: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association: Carroll, A. and Mendos, L.R., State Sponsored Homophobia 2017: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition (Geneva; ILGA, May 2017). This report is available to download in Word or PDF formats. Digital versions of the four ILGA maps of LGB legislation in the world are available for print. State-Sponsored Homophobia and its world maps are published simultaneously in English and Spanish, and will be available in Arabic, Chinese, French and Russian. Download the maps and reports at or contact [email protected] Coordination: Renato Sabbadini Design and typesetting: Renné Ramos Maps: Eduardo Enoki STATE-SPONSORED HOMOPHOBIA - MAY 2017 CONTENT FOREWORD: CO-SECRETARIES-GENERAL: RUTH BALDACCHINO AND HELEN KENNEDY............................................................................ 5 AUTHORS’ PREFACE: AENGUS CARROLL AND LUCAS RAMÓN MENDOS ............................................................................................................... 7 STRENGTHENING SOGI PROTECTION AND UNPACKING INTERSECTIONALITY AT THE UNITED NATIONS IN 2016: ANDRÉ DU PLESSIS, DIANA CAROLINA PRADO MOSQUERA AND KSENIYA KIRICHENKO ............................................................ 13 LGB LEGISLATION GLOBAL OVERVIEW .................................................................................. 25 SAME-SEX SEXUAL ACTS LEGAL ................................................. 26 SAME-SEX SEXUAL ACTS ILLEGAL ...................................................37 SAME-SEX SEXUAL ACTS - DEATH PENALTY ................................40 PROMOTION (‘PROPAGANDA’) AND ‘MORALITY’ LAWS ...............41 BARRIERS TO SOGI NGOS ...................................................................46 CONSTITUTIONAL PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION SPECIFYING SEXUAL ORIENTATION .................................................46 PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT BASED ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION ....................................................48 HATE CRIMES BASED ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION CONSIDERED AN AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCE .........................60 INCITEMENT TO HATRED BASED ON SEXUAL ORIENTATION PROHIBITED ...............................................................63 BAN ON ‘CONVERSION THERAPIES’ .................................................67 MARRIAGE OPEN FOR SAME-SEX COUPLES ...................................68 PARTNERSHIP RECOGNITION FOR SAME-SEX COUPLES..............70 JOINT ADOPTION BY SAME-SEX COUPLES ....................................73 SECOND PARENT ADOPTION ..............................................................75 CRIMINALISATION ................................................................................................................... 79 AFRICA ..................................................................................................................................... 81 ALGERIA .................................................................................................81 MAURITIUS ............................................................................................95 ANGOLA .................................................................................................81 MOROCCO ..............................................................................................95 BOTSWANA ............................................................................................82 NAMIBIA.................................................................................................95 BURUNDI ...............................................................................................83 NIGERIA .................................................................................................96 CAMEROON ...........................................................................................84 COMOROS ..............................................................................................84 EGYPT ....................................................................................................85 ERITREA .................................................................................................86 ETHIOPIA ...............................................................................................87 GAMBIA ..................................................................................................88 GHANA ...................................................................................................89 GUINEA ..................................................................................................90 KENYA ....................................................................................................90 SENEGAL ...............................................................................................97 SIERRA LEONE ......................................................................................98 SOMALIA ................................................................................................98 SOUTH SUDAN ......................................................................................99 SUDAN ................................................................................................. 100 SWAZILAND ........................................................................................ 100 TANZANIA ........................................................................................... 101 TOGO ................................................................................................... 102 LIBERIA ..................................................................................................91 TUNISIA ............................................................................................... 103 LIBYA ......................................................................................................92 UGANDA ............................................................................................. 104 MALAWI .................................................................................................93 ZAMBIA ............................................................................................... 105 MAURITANIA .........................................................................................94 ZIMBABWE ......................................................................................... 106 AMERICAS .............................................................................................................................. 108 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA................................................................. 108 JAMAICA ............................................................................................. 114 BARBADOS ......................................................................................... 109 ST KITTS & NEVIS .............................................................................. 116 DOMINICA ........................................................................................... 110 ST LUCIA ............................................................................................. 117 GRENADA ............................................................................................ 111 ST VINCENT & THE GRENADINES................................................... 118 GUYANA .............................................................................................. 112 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO .................................................................. 119 STATE-SPONSORED HOMOPHOBIA - MAY 2017 ASIA ....................................................................................................................................... 121 AFGHANISTAN ................................................................................... 121 MYANMAR .......................................................................................... 132 BANGLADESH .................................................................................... 121 OMAN .................................................................................................. 133 BHUTAN .............................................................................................. 122 PAKISTAN ............................................................................................ 133 BRUNEI DARUSSALAM ..................................................................... 123 QATAR .................................................................................................. 134 GAZA (IN THE OCCUPIED PALESTINIAN TERRITORY) ................ 124 INDIA ................................................................................................... 124 INDONESIA (SOUTH SUMATRA AND ACEH PROVINCE) ............. 125 IRAN ..................................................................................................... 126 IRAQ ..................................................................................................... 128 SAUDI ARABIA ................................................................................... 135 SINGAPORE ........................................................................................ 136 SRI LANKA .......................................................................................... 137 SYRIA ................................................................................................... 137 KUWAIT ............................................................................................... 129 TURKMENISTAN ................................................................................. 138 LEBANON ............................................................................................ 130 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES ................................................................. 139 MALAYSIA ........................................................................................... 130 UZBEKISTAN ....................................................................................... 139 MALDIVES ........................................................................................... 131 YEMEN ................................................................................................ 140 OCEANIA ................................................................................................................................ 141 COOK ISLANDS (ASSOCIATES TO NEW ZEALAND)........................ 141 SOLOMON ISLANDS .............................................................................. 144 KIRIBATI .............................................................................................. 141 TONGA................................................................................................. 145 PAPUA NEW GUINEA ............................................................................ 142 TUVALU ............................................................................................... 146 SAMOA ................................................................................................ 143 GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES......................................................................................................... 147 AFRICA REFERENCE CHART ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 148 LGBT VISIBILITY: A DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD: ANTHONY OLUOCH AND MONICA TABENGWA ............................................................ 150 AMERICAS REFERENCE CHART ................................................................................................................................................................................. 156 THE AMERICAS IN 2016: A YEAR MARKED BY SIGNIFICANT ADVANCES, VIOLENCE AND ANTI-RIGHTS STAKEHOLDERS: FANNY GOMEZ-LUGO AND VÍCTOR MADRIGAL-BORLOZ ..................................................................................................................................... 158 ASIA REFERENCE CHART ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 164 ASIA THESE DAYS – THREE PARTS: EAST & SOUTH EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND MIDDLE EAST: VARIOUS CONTRIBUTORS ...... 166 EUROPE REFERENCE CHART ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 178 EUROPE – TIME TO IMPLEMENT PROTECTIONS: THE ILGA-EUROPE TEAM .............................................................................................. 180 OCEANIA REFERENCE CHART .................................................................................................................................................................................... 184 OCEANIA: A YEAR OF STEADY PROGRESS TOWARDS EQUALITY: RAYMOND ROCA AND HENRY ‘AHO............................................. 186 WORLD MAPS 2017 ............................................................................................................... 192 READING ILGA MAPS ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 192 OVERVIEW MAP ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 193 CRIMINALISATION MAP .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 194 PROTECTION MAP .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 195 RECOGNITION MAP ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 196 STATE-SPONSORED HOMOPHOBIA - MAY 2017 ILGA CO-SECRETARIES GENERAL’ FOREWORD RUTH BALDACCHINO AND HELEN KENNEDY On reviewing this 12th edition of State Sponsored Homophobia, the ancient Arabic phrase, later to be adopted by everyone, comes to mind: ‘knowledge itself is power’. This report offers a compilation of useful, credible data to human rights defenders, civil society organisations, governments, UN and regional agencies, media, and allies of our communities in the fight for a more just and inclusive society. The data is compiled with the express purpose of supplying precise detail and current sources. As such, a single tool may be used for different purposes: this information can be useful to support advocacy and change processes in societies where sexual orientation intersects with other issues; institutions can take stock of human rights violations faced by LGBQ people worldwide and accelerate efforts to end these atrocities; media and allies can find precise references to the actual content of laws, and then report and raise awareness of where this information leads. Since the launch of our first edition in 2006, State Sponsored Homophobia has become increasingly richer in its content and more detailed. It it a unique document: it bridges the world of technical blackletter law provisions, tracks progress in global and regional human rights settings, and offers insight (and abundant sources) into the social conditions that LGBQ people lived in and experienced over the past year. In this edition, the theme of Protection of our Communities underpins the short essays and entries on countries. There is, therefore, significant attention paid to the concept of persecution and the necessity to flee, as well as to barriers to the founding, establishment and/or registration of sexual orientation-related NGOs, along with a new category about countries which have banned so-called ‘conversion therapy’. As we witness threats to civil society spaces in countries traditionally known for their openness, and new pieces of legislation being adopted in more repressive societies, this is a much needed discussion. In times when basic democratic principles and even notions of respect for human rights, solidarity, and the rule of law are under threat, we witness everyday how the gains made by the broader human rights movement are never set in stone, and must be fought for and protected continuously. The number of laws that safeguard our rights to express a different sexual-orientation (decriminalisation), protect us from violence and hatred, or that recognise us as human beings who need relationship, have expanded greatly over the years. This is why the value of having non-anecdotal information on how the situation facing our communities is evolving across the world can’t be overstated. Comparative overviews like the one of State Sponsored Homophobia offer human rights defenders valuable learning on other States: how rights are denied or upheld, what scapegoating looks like, and how our issues become ideological battlefields in political spaces. STATE-SPONSORED HOMOPHOBIA - MAY 2017 5 In the past twelve months, ILGA has produced more research in a number of areas: a Trans Legal Mapping Report, the ILGA-RIWI Global Attitudes Survey on LGBTI People in partnership with Logo, and very useful compilations of, and commentaries on, SOGIESC issues at various United Nations mechanisms. Together with this State Sponsored Homophobia, they all form an important and reliable corpus of information in the hands of individual activists, NGOs and allies, addressing lived realities and experiences of LGBTIQ people from all over the world. Knowledge is itself power. There is wisdom in those words. In this case, it is the power to challenge norms and practices that continue to oppress our communities. It is the power of information, and the courage to use it that will indeed make this world a better place for everyone. Our thanks go to all those who worked on this report: the co-authors, Aengus Carroll and Lucas Ramón Mendos; the numerous contributors in this edition; ILGA staff, translators, map-maker and designer and particularly to all ILGA members whose knowledge continues to sustain this report. 6 STATE-SPONSORED HOMOPHOBIA - MAY 2017 CO-AUTHORS’ PREFACE AENGUS CARROLL, LLM, IS AN IRELAND-BASED AUTHOR AND CONSULTANT HUMAN RIGHTS RESEARCHER ON SOGIESC ISSUES. LUCAS RAMÓN MENDOS IS AN ARGENTINE HUMAN RIGHTS LAWYER, LECTURER ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND GAY ACTIVIST. The fundamental purpose of producing ILGA’s annual State Sponsored Homophobia publication is to compile information on the world’s laws that are relevant to sexual orientation in one place. In addition to ILGA’s membership of around 1300 SOGIESC-related organisations, this publication is primarily designed to provide a body of accurate and credible reference sources to researchers, human rights defenders, agencies, organisations, institutions and allies. Building on the authorship of previous editions, this year the publication provides significantly more comprehensive coverage of each State...
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