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Biology%20113%20-%20Midterm%20Review - Biology 113 Autumn...

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Biology 113 - Autumn 2011: Midterm, Review This review should not be by any means your only study resource; the purpose of this document is to summarize some of the fundamental concepts in cellular biology you should be familiar with. Part 1. Chemical context of life What you should know: characteristics and major functions of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids). You should be able to: relate this knowledge to examples in biology. 1.1. General concepts a. Atom structure: electron distribution, isomers. b. Chemical bonds: Covalent, ionic, Hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals interactions. c. Properties of water molecules: Polarity and hydrogen bonds, cohesion, adhesion, specific heat, ice proprieties, solvency (hydrogen bonds and interaction with ionic and nonionic polar molecules). Water molecules are important in thermoregulation of plants and animals. d. Proprieties of carbon: Isomers (structural, geometric, enantiomers) and Chemical functional groups (Hydroxyl, Carboxyl, Carbonyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate and Methyl). 1.2. Macromolecules Polymers and monomers: synthesis and break down (dehydration and hydrolysis). Carbohydrates: monomer structure (carbonyl group and several hydroxyl groups), linear and ring forms of monosaccharides, primary functions (Fuel, energy storage, strengthen), memorize some examples. Lipids: Not considered true macromolecules. Grouped together because they don’t mix with water. a) Fats : structure (Glycerol + fatty acid(s)), saturated and unsaturated, functions (energy source). b) Phospholipids : structure (Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate group), functions (cell membrane).
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c) Steroids : structure (4 carbon rings skeleton + a variety of chemical groups), functions (hormones, component of animal cell membranes). Proteins: monomer structure (alpha carbon [central] + carboxyl group + amino group), peptide bonds, difference polypeptide and protein, level of structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary), denaturation. Primary functions: -Structural: (1) Attach to cytoskeleton to provide support, maintain cell shape, and anchor membrane proteins. (2) Attach to proteins of other cells (intercellular joining) -Cell signaling: Receptor proteins trigger cellular responses when molecules bind to them. -Transport proteins: Regulate movement of molecules through membrane, Channel proteins or Carrier protein. -Recognition proteins (cell-cell recognition): Serve as “ID tags”, many of these are glycoproteins with carbohydrate groups attached.
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