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Lec 5 Tour of Cell 1-6

Lec 5 Tour of Cell 1-6 - Biol 113 AU2011 A Overview The...

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1 Biol 113 AU2011 Lecture 5 A Tour of the Cell A. Overview: The fundamental units of life B. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells C. Organelles of eukaryotic cells D. The cytoskeleton E. Extracellular components and connections A. Overview: The Fundamental Units of Life All organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live Cell structure is correlated to cellular function All cells are related by their descent from earlier cells B. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells The basic structural and functional unit of every organism is one of two types of cells: prokaryotic or eukaryotic Only organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells Protists, fungi, animals, and plants all consist of eukaryotic cells Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Basic features of all cells: Plasma membrane Semifluid substance called cytosol Chromosomes (carry genes) Ribosomes (make proteins) Fimbriae Nucleoid Ribosomes Plasma membrane Cell wall Capsule Flagella Bacterial chromosome (a) A typical rod-shaped bacterium (b) A thin section through the bacterium Bacillus coagulans (TEM) 0.5 µ m Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having No nucleus DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid No membrane-bound organelles Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane Fig. 6.5 Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope Membrane-bound organelles Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic Cells
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2 Fig. 6.8a ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Smooth ER Rough ER Flagellum Centrosome CYTOSKELETON: Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules Microvilli Peroxisome Mitochondrion Lysosome Golgi apparatus Ribosomes Plasma membrane Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin NUCLEUS An Animal Cell Fig. 6.8c NUCLEUS Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Central vacuole Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules CYTO- SKELETON Chloroplast Plasmodesmata Wall of adjacent cell Cell wall Plasma membrane Peroxisome Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus A Plant Cell C. Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells A eukaryotic cell has internal membranes that partition the cell into organelles Plant and animal cells have most of the same organelles Fig. 6.9 Nucleolus Nucleus Rough ER Nuclear lamina (TEM) Close-up of nuclear envelope 1 µ m 1 µ m 0.25 µ m Ribosome Pore complex Nuclear pore Outer membrane Inner membrane Nuclear envelope: Chromatin Surface of nuclear envelope Pore complexes (TEM) 1. The Nucleus – A genetic stock center 2. Ribosomes: Protein Factories Ribosomes are particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis in two locations: - In the cytosol (free ribosomes) - On the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope (bound ribosomes) Cytosol
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