Chapter 7 STRESS AND WELL-BEING AT WORK teacher resources nqimch07

Chapter 7 STRESS AND WELL-BEING AT WORK teacher resources nqimch07

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7 STRESS AND WELL-BEING AT WORK CHAPTER SCAN Stress can be beneficial or harmful. While some harmful stress is inevitable, the techniques and approaches available for dealing with that stress are increasing. Some individuals and some circumstances are more at risk for high stress than are others. This chapter also reviews the benefits of controlling stress in the workplace. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1. Define stress, distress, strain , and eustress. 2. Compare four different approaches to stress. 3. Explain the psychophysiology of the stress response. 4. Identify work and nonwork causes of stress. 5. Describe the benefits of eustress and the costs of distress. 6. Discuss four moderators of the stress-strain relationship. 7. Distinguish the primary, secondary, and tertiary stages of preventive stress management. 8. Discuss organizational and individual methods of preventive stress management. 121
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122 Chapter 7: Stress and Well-Being at Work KEY TERMS Chapter 7 introduces the following key terms: stress stressor distress strain homeostasis ego-ideal self-image eustress participation problem performance decrement compensation award Type A behavior pattern personality hardiness transformational coping self-reliance counterdependence overdependence preventive stress management primary prevention secondary prevention tertiary prevention THE CHAPTER SUMMARIZED I. LOOKING AHEAD: Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease II. WHAT IS STRESS? Stress is the unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand. Stress does not necessarily have to be destructive. A stressor is the person or the event that triggers the stress response. Distress refers to the adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequences that may arise as a result of stressful events.
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Chapter 7: Stress and Well-Being at Work 123 A. Four Approaches to Stress 1. The Homeostatic/Medical Approach Walter Cannon was the physiologist who discovered the stress response, and he initially named it "the emergency response,” or "the militaristic response." A steady state balance, or equilibrium, is homeostasis , which is upset when a person faces an external demand. The body has natural processes to keep it in homeostasis. 2. The Cognitive Appraisal Approach Richard Lazarus made contributions related to the psychology of stress. What is stressful for one person may not be stressful for another. Stress is a result of the person-environment interaction. The person's cognitive appraisal of a situation as stressful is a key part of the stress process. 3. The Person - Environment Fit Approach Robert Kahn determined that there is a person-environment fit when skills and abilities match role expectations. Stress occurs when expectations are conflicting or confusing, or when a person's resources are unable to meet the expectations. 4.
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Chapter 7 STRESS AND WELL-BEING AT WORK teacher resources nqimch07

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