Diabetes MellitusBuynak

Diabetes MellitusBuynak - Diabetes Mellitus Overview and...

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Unformatted text preview: Diabetes Mellitus Overview and Treatments Andrew P. Vogt Chemistry 6116 Diabetes Mellitus : a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both ♦ 20.8 million in US ( 7% of population) ♦ estimated 14.6 million diagnosed (only 2/3) ♦ Consists of 3 types: 1) Type 1 diabetes 2) Type 2 diabetes 3) Gestational diabetes ♦ Complications :- Stroke- Heart attack- Kidney disease- Eye Disease- Nerve Damage Diabetes Mellitus ♦ Type 1 Diabetes- cells that produce insulin are destroyed - results in insulin dependence- commonly detected before 30 ♦ Type 2 Diabetes- blood glucose levels rise due to 1) Lack of insulin production 2) Insufficient insulin action (resistant cells)- commonly detected after 40- effects > 90%- eventually leads to β-cell failure (resulting in insulin dependence) Gestational Diabetes 3-5% of pregnant women in the US develop gestational diabetes Testing : Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG) - (cheap, fast) * fasting B.G.L. 100-125 mg/dl signals pre-diabetes * >126 mg/dl signals diabetes Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) * tested for 2 hrs after glucose- rich drink * 140-199 mg/dl signals pre- diabetes * >200 mg/dl signals diabetes ♦ 80 to 90 mg per 100 ml, is the normal fasting blood glucose concentration in humans and most mammals which is associated with very low levels of insulin secretion. A.K.A.: Glycated Hemoglobin tests A1C Diabetes - Insulin ♦ Discovered in 1921 by Banting and Best ♦ Consist of A & B chains linked by 2 disulfide bonds (plus additional disulfide in A) ~ ~ ~ ~ ♦ A = 21amino acids B = 30 amino acids Diabetes – Insulin (synthesis, storage, secretion) ♦ Produced within the pancreas by β cells islets of Langerhans ♦ insulin mRNA is translated as a single chain precursor called preproinsulin ♦ removal of signal peptide during insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum generates proinsulin ♦ Within the endoplasmic reticulum, proinsulin is exposed to several specific endopeptidases which excise the C peptide, thereby generating the mature form of insulin ♦ Stored as β granules This light micrograph of a section of the human pancreas shows one of the islets of Langerhans, center, a group of modified glandular cells. These cells secrete insulin, a hormone that helps the body metabolize sugars, fats, and starches. The blue and white lines in the islets of Langerhans are blood vessels that carry the insulin to the rest of the body. Zn Diabetes – Insulin (Biochemical Role)- Tyrosine Kinase receptors are the locks in which the insulin key fits- Involved in signal transduction (insulin hormone being 1 st messenger) In the case of type 1 diabetes, insulin levels are grossly deficient. Thus type 1 diabetes is invariably treated with insulin Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with obesity. Serum insulin levels are normal or elevated, so this is a disease of insulin resistance. A number of treatment options may be employed. ♦...
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Diabetes MellitusBuynak - Diabetes Mellitus Overview and...

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