OtherReview - Pure Appl. Chem. , Vol. 71, No. 1, pp....

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Unformatted text preview: Pure Appl. Chem. , Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 161171, 1999. Printed in Great Britain. q 1999 IUPAC 161 Bioremediation of oil on shoreline environments: development of techniques and guidelines* Kenneth Lee ,1 and Francois Xavier Merlin 2 1 Fisheries and Oceans, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, PO Box 1000, Mont-Joli, Quebec, G5H 3Z4, Canada; 2 Centre de documentation de recherche et dexperimentations sur les pollutions accidentelles des eaux (CEDRE), B.P. 72, 29280 Plouzane, France Abstract: Over the last 20 years, the development of operational procedures to accelerate the natural biodegradation rates of oil spilled on shoreline environments has been the focus of numerous research programs. As a result, bioremediation has been demonstrated to be an effective oil spill countermeasure for use in cobble, sand beach, salt marsh, and mudflat environments. Today, studies are directed towards improving the efficacy and evaluating the ecological impacts of available bioremediation agents and/or procedures. This review describes the latest developments in bioremediation strategies and their key success factors. INTRODUCTION Microbial degradation is a principal process in the elimination of petroleum pollutants from the environment [1]. Bacteria and fungi, with the capability to degrade a wide range of oil components, have been found to exist throughout the marine ecosystem [2,3]. Studies on the fate of petroleum following marine oil spills have shown that the natural rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation are usually limited by abiotic environmental factors [4]. However, given sufficient time, the petroleum hydrocarbons will be degraded. In consideration of this fact, over the last 20 years, numerous bioremediation strategies have been developed for use as an oil spill countermeasure. With the reported success of cleanup operations using bioremediation in Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill [47], and that of other controlled field trials [810], bioremediation is now considered as one the most promising oil spill countermeasures [11,12]. However, to be fully recognized as an operational oil-spill response technology, R&D programs are now required to identify its benefits and limitations, and to provide guidance for its application. This review describes recent advances in oil spill bioremediation technologies, highlights new concepts under consideration, and identifies the principal factors to consider in the application of these technologies. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES There are two main approaches to oil-spill bioremediation: [1] Bioaugmentation (seeding) involves the addition of oil-degrading bacteria to supplement the existing microbial population; and [2] Biostimulation involves the addition of nutrients or other growth-enhancing cosubstrates to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil degraders....
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OtherReview - Pure Appl. Chem. , Vol. 71, No. 1, pp....

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