Final Exam Phil

Final Exam Phil - Define: 1. Validity - Conditions where if...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Define: 1. Validity - Conditions where if the premise is then the conclusion must be true. 2. Soundness - Valid with true premises and logical 3. Formal Validity - can always be understood even if you can’t understand the words. 4. Supererogatory An action is supererogatory if it goes above and beyond the call of duty. Supererogatory actions are not obligatory, but they are even better to do. 5. Utilitarianism - theory that incorporates consequentialism, theory of happiness, and theory of value. We should do what brings about the best results and is of value and brings about the most happiness 6. Consequentialism - Theory that we should do whatever brings about the most happiness. The ends is more important than the means. 7. Intrinsic Value - something that has value for being that. Example is happiness vs. money. Good for its own sake 8. Instrumental Value Something has instrumental value if it is good for the sake of something else, or what you can get for it. For example, money is the paradigm example of something with instrumental value, because it is good because of what you can get for it. 9. Hedonism - Doctrine that pleasure is the highest good. 10. Maxims - A succinct formulation of a fundamental principle, general truth, or rule of conduct 11. The Tragedy of the Commons The Tragedy of the Commons is the problem that arises when each person has an individual incentive to over-use a common resource, and as a result everyone is word off. For example, if everyone makes individual decisions about how much to fish, everyone will fish more than is sustainable in the long run. 12. Free riding - using a service that is supported by a toll/tax w/o paying and allowing other people to pay for the service. 13. Categorical Imperatives - the rule of Immanuel Kant that one must do only what one can will that all others should do under similar circumstances. 14. Hypothetical Imperatives A hypothetical imperative says something that you ought to do, but only because of what you want, or what you goals are. For example, if you want to pass this class, you should turn in your papers. But if you don’t care about passing this class, maybe it doesn’t matter whether you turn in your papers. 15. Counterexamples - Examples that demonstrate the flaws in your arguments. 16. Slippery Slopes - Arguments for one event given the trend of another that will initiate a train of events that will lead to something undesirable. 17. Moral Status - A value that comes w/ some degree of rights 18. Personhood - The condition of being a person 19. Quickening - The first time you feel your baby move 20. Viability - The chances the fetus has of being born and surviving 21. The Trump Principle – If you have conflicting rights then you look at which right trumps the other.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
22. Thought experiment - in the broadest sense is the use of a hypothetical scenario to help us understand the way things actually are. 23.
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 02/02/2008 for the course PHIL 140g taught by Professor Kwon during the Spring '07 term at USC.

Page1 / 20

Final Exam Phil - Define: 1. Validity - Conditions where if...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online