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Communications 2

Communications 2 - VerbalCommunication VerbalCommunication...

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Verbal Communication 20:53 Verbal Communication Any written or oral words or sounds we exchange Language A collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages The Nature of Language Language is symbolic Words   meaning   response Meanings are in people, not words Language is rule-governed Language is dynamic Factors Affecting Use Gender Powerful vs. Powerless language Age Geographic regionality Terminology  Ethnicity/Race SES [education, occupation] Rules
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Types Phonological Syntactical Semantic Pragmatic Collectively, compose a grammar Phonological Rules Govern how words sound when pronounced “hair” vs. “heir” vs. “air” vs. “err” “A farm can produce produce” “The dump was so full it had to refuse refuse” “The present is a good time to present the present” Phonemes English: 44 Native Hawaiian: 13 African: <100 Vowels in Spanish versus English Syntactical Rules Govern the structure of language- how symbols can be arranged SVO in English- subject verb object “Sick have I become”
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Different cultures, different rules English: Adjective precede nouns “ I have an intelligent dog.” Spanish: Adjectives follow nouns “Tengo un perro intelegente” Semantic Rules Deal with the meaning of specific words, how to distinguish “The peacemaking meeting scheduled for today has been cancelled due to a conflict”  “Kids make nutritious snacks” Connotative vs. Denotative meaning Pragmatic Rules Govern how people use language in everyday interaction [speech acts] Govern the ways we organize, carry on conversations Ex. Typical greeting, introductions Context determines which rules we apply Theoretical Perspectives Different cultures perceive the world in different ways Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language is more than a tool for expression Linguistic relativity
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Culture shaped by language Linguistic determinism Thoughts based upon the language/words we speak “we think in the language we speak” Learning a language is learning a reality Co-culture Theory See principles in book Those who have power control the language in society Muted group theory (MGT) Language is culture bound Men: more power, influence over language Result: a male-bias Women: left out of meaning creation Result: women are a muted group Must translate ideas, experiences, and meanings in order to be heard MGT: How it occurs Institutionalization Institutional models Education Religious/spiritual Political Leadership positions Gatekeepers MGT: evidence Widespread use of sports metaphors Dominance of rationality versus emotion Derogatory terms for sexes Language expectancy theory Expectations about what language will (not) be used
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