Chapter 1- The Study of Sociology
The differences between Psychology and Sociology
Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior and human groups.
Psychology is the study of people, their minds and their behaviors.
Macro vs. Micro sociology
Macro is the study of social structures and institutions.
Moreover, the position
within social structures (status, roles, institutions) that determine human behavior.
Micro is the study of social interaction.
Moreover that human behavior is bases
on individuals’ interpretation of a situation and the meaning they give it.
The sociological perspective
General Social Patterns in the behavior of particular individuals
The study of social phenomena by sociologists at different levels and from
different perspectives. (Symbolic interaction, functionalism, and conflict theory.)
Advantages of the sociological perspective
Sociology and social marginality
Allows us to notice diversity in America
Sociology draws attention to social crisis
They allow us to see the connection between micro and macro social elements
The sociological imagination
An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society.
is based on an ability to view society as an outsider might, rather than from the
perspective of an insider.
Theories and paradigms
theory: a statement of how and why facts are related
Paradigm: a set of fundamental assumptions that guides thinking
An overview of structural – functional theory
Views society as a complex system with many interdependent parts
The parts work together to promote social stability and order
Major changes to the system’s parts is not requires or desired; system seeks to
maintain its equilibrium
Social structure: refers to relatively stable patterns of social behavior
found in social institutions
Social function; refers to the consequences of social patterns for society;
all of our interaction create a reaction in ourselves and others
What are manifests and latent functions
Manifest functions are open, stated, conscious functions that involve the intended,
recognized consequences of an aspect of society, such as the university’s role in
certifying academic competence and excellence.