alkanesg

Alkanesg - Alkanes 1 Copyright Arizona State University Copyright Arizona State University Alkanes Introduction to 3D Structures(more • Alkanes

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Unformatted text preview: Alkanes 1 Copyright, Arizona State University Copyright, Arizona State University Alkanes Introduction to 3D Structures (more...) • Alkanes are hydrocarbons, i.e. organic molecules that contain only carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) atoms • Alkanes are unsaturated (have no double/triple bonds), but may have rings • Alkanes are generally unreactive and form the "backbone" of most organic molecules 1 Basic Organic Nomenclature (more...) Two kinds: • Common or trivial names • IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists!), systematic naming system 1.1 Basic IUPAC Rules 1) find the longest (main) chain with the maximum number of substituents (that also contains any functional groups, although the simple alkanes we will name here clearly have no functional groups) 2) number to give first substituent lowest number (then next lowest etc): look for first point of difference , and ONLY IF all other thjngs are equal, number them alphabetically (but ONLY IF ALL ELSE is equal) 3) name substituents as "alkyl" 4) multiple substituents use the di-, tri-, tetra- etc. prefixes 5) substituents ordered alphabetically in the final name • ignore di-, tri-, (unless part of complex substituent!) and also sec- and tert- and other prefixes that are hyphenated when part of a name • do NOT ignore iso- and cyclo- (these are not hyphenated when part of a name) Example substituents 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 9 H 3 C CH 2 CH H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 1) longest chain = 9, therefore a substituted nonane 2) start numbering from right, gives lowest numbers for substituents 3) 2 methyl substituents, one ethyl substituent 4) dimethyl and ethyl substituents 3-ethyl-4,7-dimethylnonane dashes between numbers and names, commas between numbers!! 1.2 Nomenclature Terms You Are REQUIRED to Know methane CH 4 –CH 3 methyl -Me ethane C 2 H 6 –CH 2 CH 3 ethyl -Et propane C 3 H 8 –CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 propyl -Pr ( cyclopropyl CH CH 3 CH 3 isopropyl -i-Pr butane C 4 H 10 –CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 butyl -Bu ( cyclobutyl CH CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 sec-butyl -sec-Bu CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 3 isobutyl -i-Bu Alkanes 2 Copyright, Arizona State University C CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 tert-butyl -t-Bu pentane C 5 H 12 –(CH 2 ) 4 CH 3 ( cyclopentyl hexane C 6 H 14 –(CH 2 ) 5 CH 3 ( cyclohexyl heptane C 7 H 16 –(CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 as above octane C 8 H 18 –(CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 as above nonane C 9 H 20 –(CH 2 ) 8 CH 3 as above decane C 10 H 22 –(CH 2 ) 9 CH 3 as above undecane C 11 H 24 –(CH 2 ) 10 CH 3 as above dodecane C 12 H 26 –(CH 2 ) 11 CH 3 as above Also, some other substituents that you are required to know…….. fluoro –F chloro bromo iodo –Cl –Br –I phenyl (–Ph) Example chloro before iso propyl alphabetically 4-chloro-5-isopropyloctane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 Cl Example 1 complex substituent, number 1 where meets main chain 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH CH 2 CH CH 3 CH CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 • longest chain = 10, therefore a decane...
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This note was uploaded on 01/07/2012 for the course CHM 233 taught by Professor Skibo during the Fall '08 term at ASU.

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Alkanesg - Alkanes 1 Copyright Arizona State University Copyright Arizona State University Alkanes Introduction to 3D Structures(more • Alkanes

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