Chapter_16 - Chapter 16 The Second Law of Thermodynamics...

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Chapter 16 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
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Outline 1. Directions of Thermodynamic Processes 2. Heat Engines 3. Internal Combustion Energies 4. Refrigerators 5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics 6. The Carnot Engine: The Most Efficient Heat Engine 7. Entropy 8. The Kelvin Temperature Scale 9. Energy Resources: A case Study in Thermodynamics
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1- Directions of Thermodynamic Processes Reversible process : it can be performed in such a way that both the system and its environment can return to their exact original conditions by going along the same path in the reverse direction. Irreversible process : does not satisfy the requirements of a reversible process
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• If there is friction: Part of the Heat goes to friction, System and environment are not back to their original conditions, Irreversible Process. out in Q Q
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• In reality all processes are irreversible. • If a process occurs very slowly, it can be considered reversible. • All spontaneous ( natural ) processes are irreversible (adiabatic expansion of gases, heat flow from high T to low T )
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C o ncept Test A piece of hot metal is thrown in cold water.( Assume that the system is the metal which neither contracts nor expands). The process is: 3- Irreversible isochoric: •Heat flows From the metal to the water The process is spontaneous thus it is Irreversible •There is no expansion or contraction: Isochoric
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2- Heat engines Heat engine : any device that converts thermal energy to perform work .
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Steam engines • Working substance : H 2 O • Cyclic process thus D U=0
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Heat engine
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• The thermal efficiency, e, 0 0 Since D D W Q U U net c h net Q Q Q W engine by the done net work ) cycle 1 in ( T at input Heat
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Chapter_16 - Chapter 16 The Second Law of Thermodynamics...

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