Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 Electric Forces and Electric Fields...

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Chapter 15 Electric Forces and Electric Fields
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Dr. Ghassan Antar 2 Outline 1. Properties of Electric Charges 2. Insulators and Conductors 3. Coulomb’s Law 4. The Electric Field 5. Electric Field Lines 6. Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium 7. Electric Flux and Gauss’s Law
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Dr. Ghassan Antar 3 Electric Charge: History As reported by the Ancient Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus around 600 BC, charge (or electricity ) could be accumulated by rubbing fur on various substances, such as amber . The Greeks noted that the charged amber buttons could attract light objects such as hair. (the triboelectric effect). In 1600 the English scientist William Gilbert returned to the subject in De Magnete , and coined the New Latin word electricus from ηλεκτρον ( elektron ), the Greek word for " ambe r", which soon gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity." In the 18th century it was B. Franklin and W. Watson who argued in favor of a one-fluid theory of electricity.
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Dr. Ghassan Antar 4 Properties of Electric Charges Everyday Manifestations: Rubbing a glass rod can deflect a stream of water. Comb attracting bits of paper. Upon rubbing, these materials become electrically charged Electric charges are transferred from one material to another.
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Dr. Ghassan Antar 5 Properties: Like charges repel each other whereas unlike charges attract each other. Electrostatics is the study of charges, or charged bodies, at rest.
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Dr. Ghassan Antar 6 Electric Charge Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction . Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields. There are two kinds of charge, positive and negative Like charges repel. Unlike charges attract. Positive charge comes from having more protons than electrons; negative charge comes from having more electrons than protons. Charge is quantized, meaning that charge comes in integer multiples of the elementary charge e. q = +/ n e, where n is any integer e = 1.602 x 10 -19 C; the + sign is for protons and – for electrons
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Dr. Ghassan Antar 7 Demonstration http://webphysics.davidson.edu/physlet_resources/bu_semester2/index.html Play : Charge
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8 Insulators, Conductors and Semiconductors Conductors are materials in which the electric charges move freely Copper, aluminum and silver are good conductors Insulators are materials in which electric charges do not move freely Glass, wood and rubber are examples of insulators The characteristics of semiconductors are in-between those of insulators and conductors (and thus can be controlled).
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course PHYS 205 taught by Professor Antar during the Spring '09 term at American University of Beirut.

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Chapter 15 - Chapter 15 Electric Forces and Electric Fields...

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