Enlightenment

Enlightenment - 1. Interpreting the Enlightenment 1. How...

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1. Interpreting the Enlightenment 1. How Much Enlightenment? 1. Single, unified movement—“The Enlightenment”, propagated not only through western societies in Europe, but throughout the North American society as well. 2. Best understood as a variety of different and distinct national movements—break down by nation 1. English enlightenment dominated by Isaac Newton (took theories of that century and put altogether into one system that can explain natural phenomenon. Explains type of science that Europeans were doing at the time. 2. French used the term “Lumieres”; Diderot was a major component made encyclopedia, put all knowledge of human wolrd and gather it to present it in a sensible/rational fashion 1. Major intellectual challenge, a lot more provocative 3. Germany used the term “Aufkarung”; Kant was the key figure; more tentative and moderate, he wanted reforms, more openness, less censorship in a polite and respectful tone. Made mild tentative challenges to existing order, but a lot more tame compared to French Enlightenment 2. Growth of the Public Sphere 1. Habermas looks at spaces where public intellectual space is done, and calls the sum locations where work is done the “Public Sphere” 2. Before, people did work in private, never shared. By 18 th century, people have regarded intellectual work as something that should be done in public that is open and transparent. Do work in full view of general public and get feedback on that work. No longer monopolized by tiny elite, but now open to everyone 2. Main features of the Enlightenment 1. Human Reason and the Quest for Truth 1. Philosophers of European Enlightenment were unified in faith in human reason (humans can use rationality to understand world, place in the world, and understand human relations); human reason is perfect for understands for everything, can use rationality in quest for truth. Thought if people applied their intellectual powers, they can answer all questions, solve all mysteries, unlock secrtes of natural and human world. Think they found method to solve the world’s problems and can solve problems that they have been stuck on for ages 1. Emanual Kant pg 52 “What is Enlightenment?”—what this movement actually means 1. Man’s leaving his self caused immaturity (a process of growing up, human society is getting more mature) 2. Use own intelligence—that is your own Enlightenment. It takes courage, dare to know, use strength of your own conviction. 3. Distribution of knowledge, emphasis of human reason 2. Secular Culture 1. Common for philosophers to make direct challenges towards religion 1. Pg 53 Baron Hoback? 1. Scientific thinking, you can understand everything of natural world by rational natural laws, and observing. Religion is the ignorance of natural causes reduced by a system—they take their ignorance, formalize it, and believe it. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course HIST 111 taught by Professor Loeberg during the Spring '09 term at Cal Poly.

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Enlightenment - 1. Interpreting the Enlightenment 1. How...

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