Fascism - 1. What is Fascism-specific and precise...

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1. What is Fascism-specific and precise historical phenomenon. 1. Originated in Italy 1920’s under Mussolini (first major fascist to gain power) 2. Hitler rises to power in Germany, good example of Fascist political movement. 3. General Franco in Spain late 1930’s outcome of Spanish Civil War 4. Fasces-important symbol of political authority. A stick/club that was used 1. Inheritors of long historical traditions; part of ancient historical narratives when in reality there isn’t any real connection 2. The “Fuhrer Principle” the boss/leader 1. In Germany, an important part of ideology that all political authority resides in one man. (Similar in Italy as well “Il Duce”. Concentrate power in a single individual. Held that the authority of the fascist leader is absolute and cannot be questioned. 1. Pg 351 Huber, legal scholar to justify “does not rest in the right…in merely proclaimed. ..the lawgiver of the German people” demoted the German legislature and turning them into rubber stamps—take anything and pass it on to the general population. “The Fuhrer…all the sovereign authority…the Fuhrer’s authority” take all political authority in Germany and transfer it to one person. 2. 352 “all embracing…embraces the entire people” 3. Extreme Nationalism 1. Image on slide: One people, one empire, one leader. 2. Claim it a good nation, but suprmeme nation that stands above the rest. Their nation is the supreme nation in the world, license for territorial expansion, conquest, justified in setting up imperial systems. 1. Pg 336 Mussolini bottom “for fascism, the growth of empire…is an essential manifestation…side of decadence” redefining national healthy: saying if nation is healthy, it requires expansion, growth of empire. If Italy prospers as a nation state, it has to have an empire. 3. Seems to occur in virulent form in new nation states 4. Fascist powers teamed up together during WWI, sooner or later, they will have to turn aginst each other and there is no room for more than one 4. Militarization of Society 1. Expand military forces, build up military machine, assemble military forces. Take military values and extend those values into every aspect of their society even in the civilian world. 1. Discipline, courage, self sacrifice for the greater good of the nation 2. Everyone wear uniform, carry banner/flags/symbols of fascist state 3. Pg 335 “above all…nor the utility of perpetual peace…doctrines of fascism” anti peace 4. “this anti pascifist spriit…into the life of the individual” this set of military values will extend to
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Fascism - 1. What is Fascism-specific and precise...

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