Modern Europe in Crisis

Modern Europe in Crisis - 1. Friedrich Nietzsche 1. The...

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1. Friedrich Nietzsche 1. The optimism during Enlightenment did not last and was replaced by a more critical philosophical attitude in the late 19 th century continuing into early 20 th century—represents a tremendous change in values. Calling the entire project of the enlightenment to question and initiate a new kind of philosophy that is more skeptical and critical that asked hard questions 2. The Death of God-“God is Dead” 1. Usually taken out of context 1. Literal-misleading, not how it as to be interpreted. 2. Spoke about the decline of faith in modern Europe—belief in the Christian God has been increasingly unbelievable. Faith was eroding; people were losing faith and were losing their conviction. In late 19 th century, Europe becomes much more secular. 1. Attendance to church—late 19 th to early 20 th century, there was a decline of attendance 2. The status of religion in the late 19 th century, and was declining 3. The decline was a slow and gradual process “god is dead but news of that death takes a long time to reach us” after the death of god and crisis of faith, many people will practice religion 3. Will to Power-controversial and provocative 1. Humans were fundamentally motivated by powerful instinctive drives—foremost is the instinct of the Will to Power 1. Fundamental human desire to have power, dominate, conquer. Sounds terrifying an instinct to conquer and repress one another—this is one meaning. 1. Ex: Napoleon—had a clear will to power, inner strength to motivate military conquest 2. Mean broadly, included desire for military/political power, but also included worlds in art 1. Artist, musician, novelists 3. Inner strength, powerful instinct that drives people to struggle, strive, and succeed in course of life 1. A peaceful person, writer, etc, can have inner strength just as easily as a monarch 4. Transvaluation of Values 1. The idea that by the 19 th century,, Europe was supposedly in desperate need of a new value system. Goes back to concept of the Death of god—people lose faith, lost confidence in religion
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Modern Europe in Crisis - 1. Friedrich Nietzsche 1. The...

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