# June1 - PHIL 230 | 1 June 2011 WHAT WELL LEARN Inferences...

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PHIL 230 | 1 June 2011 WHAT WE’LL LEARN Inferences involving matters of fact are always based on the relation of cause and effect Our knowledge of causes and effects always comes from experience Our knowledge from experience is probably at best RELATIONS OF IDEAS VS. MATTERS OF FACT Dealing with the “objects of human enquiry” Relations of ideas o Kinds of objects o human inquiry, statements that are intuitively or demonstratively certain Ex: If a=b and b=c, then a=c Focus intellect on and think about it, then you come with a conclusion—intuitively o Demonstration is a proof. That begins with statements that intuitively certain Ex: Pythagorean theorem o The negation of a relation of ideas implies a contradiction. 1+1=2 (relation of ideas) 1+12 SO it means Relations of ideas are logically necessary o All and only mathematical statements are relations of ideas Matters of fact: the opposite ( a posteriori ) o Neither intuitively nor demonstratively certain o The negation of a matter of fact is logically possible The sun will not rise tomorrow Is it possible? Yes, it is logically possible that the sun will not rise. To say that it is possible means that there is no inherent contradiction. You can be saying something false, or improbable; but we are talking about possibilities. The consequence is that our knowledge about matters of fact is never known what we have with absolute certainty. In contrast of what we know with certainty, things we know with fact is probable at most. o They are not logically necessary, any knowledge that is not mathematics—all empirical knowledge— statements you have to verify by appealing to one’s sensations INFERENCES CONCERNING MATTERS OF FACT Some of my examples-not Hume’s Ex 1: You look out the window in the morning, everything is wet all over, so you conclude it rained that night Ex 2: Smoke from the chimney o Suppose you come back from summer, etc. and move into a new house. Your roommates have never seen anyone come in or out of the house next door, but you see smoke coming out of a chimney. You

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## This note was uploaded on 01/06/2012 for the course PHIL 230 taught by Professor Bethel during the Spring '00 term at Cal Poly.

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June1 - PHIL 230 | 1 June 2011 WHAT WELL LEARN Inferences...

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