psy 421 quiz 2 study guide

psy 421 quiz 2 study guide - Quiz 2 Study Guide Chapter 1...

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Quiz 2 Study Guide Chapter 1 Violation of Expectation Paradigm - infants are shown a physical even and then on test trials shown events that are either incompatible or compatible with the event. Longer looking at the impossible even indicates that the infants understand the physical principle involved. Statistical Learning - using the regularities in input to learn which features co-occur together. Prototype Formation - the formation of an internal prototypical or generalized representation of a class of stimuli. Habituation Paradigm - infants are presented a stimulus, usually auditory or visual, until it no longer attracts attention. Recovery of attention to a new stimulus (dishabituation) indicates discrimination between familiar and new. Visual Preference Technique - infants are shown pairs of stimuli and a preference for looking at one indicates the ability to discriminate between the 2. Reactivation Paradigm - procedure where the participant, usually an infant, is given a reminder of an earlier learned but forgotten memory that enables this memory to become accessible. Associative Learning - the ability to make connections between events that are reliably associated. Full Object Concept - an understanding that objects are enduring entities that continue to exist when out of sight or otherwise unavailable to our senses. Naïve Physics - knowledge about social cognition, self, and agency; and conceptual knowledge. Fantz (1961) - created the looking chamber for observing infant gaze. Even though it was not a particularly good apparatus for observing gaze because the apparatus meant that everything was novel. But he introduced the Visual Preference technique, which is how infants attend to, ignore, or prefer objects. Discovered and termed habituation and dishabituation and how they occur. Slater et al. (1983) - habituation and choice: habituation + preference technique. If stimulus A is habituated to and then presented with novel stimulus B, will still be habituated to stimulus A. Varying the habituated stimuli ensures that infants are responding to the shape per se. Slater & Morrison (1987) - varying the habituating stimuli. The infants see 6 different stimuli. Then they see a novel shape paired with a novel version of the familiar stimulus. Newborns show no preference but 3 and 5 month olds prefer the novel shape. Infants can categorize and differentiate. It allows for more efficient processing and retrieval.
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Rose et al. (2001) - infant memory. Memory span task (schematic depiction). Infants view sets of 1 to 4 distinctive toys. Span is measured by preference test, pairing each toy with a novel one. Recency effect is found with the infants. Recall is higher when semantic categories are identified by subject.
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psy 421 quiz 2 study guide - Quiz 2 Study Guide Chapter 1...

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